Voiceless dental and alveolar plosives
The voiceless alveolar, dental and postalveolar plosives (or stops) are types of consonantal sounds used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is ⟨t⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
t. The voiceless dental plosive can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic, ⟨t̪⟩ and the postalveolar with a retraction line, ⟨t̠⟩, and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation, ⟨t͇⟩.
The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically; the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), Abau, and Nǁng of South Africa.
There are only a few languages which distinguishes dental and alveolar stops, Kota, Toda, Venda being a few of them.
Here are features of the voiceless alveolar stop:
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
- There are three specific variants of [t]:
- Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
- Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Dental or denti-alveolar
||<ţ> has shifted to <c> for this word in Mandian dialect
||дүрт / dürt
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with an unaspirated form.
||Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with alveolar /t/.
||Laminal denti-alveolar, corresponds to [θ] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [t͡θ] instead. See English phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /t/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
||See Esperanto phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Finnish phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
||तीन / تین
||Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
||特別 / tokubetsu
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Japanese phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
||Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form.
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. Likely to have allophones among native speakers, as it may affricate to [tʃ], [tɕ] and/or [ts] in certain environments. See Portuguese phonology
||ਤੇਲ / تیل
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Russian phonology
||туга / tuga
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Slovene phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
||Laminal denti-alveolar. Slightly aspirated before vowels.
||Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Vietnamese phonology