Help:IPA/Standard German

The charts below show the way International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-de}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard German phonology and German orthography § Grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

Consonants
DE AT CH Examples English approximation
b bei;[1] ab (AT, CH)[2] ball
ç ich, durch;[3] China (DE) hue
d dann; Kleid (AT, CH)[2] done
f für, von, Phänomen fuss
ɡ gut; Tag (AT, CH)[2] guest
h hat hut
j Jahr, Yo-Yo yard
k kann, cremen, sechs; Tag (DE);[2] China (AT, CH) cold
l Leben last
Mantel bottle
m Mann must
großem rhythm
n Name not
beiden sudden
ŋ lang long
p Person, ab (DE)[2] puck
pf Pfeffer cupful
ʁ r reden[4] DE: French rouge
AT, CH: Scottish red
s lassen, groß, Haus fast
ʃ schon, Stadt, spitz, Champagner, Ski shall
t Tag, Stadt; Kleid (DE)[2] tall
ts Zeit, Platz, Potsdam, Celle cats
Matsch, Cello match
v was, Vase[1] vanish
x nach[3] Scottish loch
z Sie, diese[1] (in Austrian German sparsely used) DE: zebra
AT, CH: soup
ʔ beamtet [bəˈʔamtət][5] uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel, Pidgin[1][6] jungle
ð Motherboard[7] this
ɹ Spray[8] rice
θ Thatcherismus[7] think
ʒ Genie, Entourage[1][6] pleasure
Stress
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
[ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə]
battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
ˌ
Syllable break
. Ephraim
[ˈeːfra.ɪm]
flower /ˈfl.ər/ (contrasting with flour /ˈflaʊər/)
Vowels
DE AT CH Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a alles, Kalender father, but short
aber, sah, Staat father
ɛ Ende, hätte bet
ɛː spät, wählen[9] RP hair
eben, gehen, Meer mate
ɪ ist sit
liebe, Berlin, ihm seed
ɔ kommen off
oder, hohe, Boot story
œ öffnen somewhat like hurt
øː Österreich, Möhre, adieu somewhat like heard
ʊ und push
Hut, Kuh true
ʏ müssen, Ypsilon somewhat like cute
über, Mühe, psychisch somewhat like few
Diphthongs
ein, Kaiser, Haydn, Verleih, Speyer high
auf vow
ɔʏ Euro, Häuser choice
Reduced vowels
ɐ ər immer[4] DE, AT: frustration
CH: Scottish letter[10]
ə Name balance (but not sofa)[10]
Semivowels
ɐ̯ r Uhr[4] DE, AT: sofa
CH: Scottish far
Studie yard
Pointe[11] quite
Linguist, Gouache[11] would
Etui[11] somewhat like evaluation
Non-native vowels
ãː Gourmand, Engagement, Restaurant, Chance[12] French Provence
ɛ̃ː Pointe[12] French quinze
ɛɪ Mail[13] face
õː Garçon[12] French Le Monde
ɔː stalken, Motherboard[14] American raw
ɔʊ Code[13] American goat
œ̃ː Parfum[12] French emprunte
œːɐ̯ øːr surfen, Gouverneur[15] roughly like RP bird
Shortened vowels
ã engagieren[12] French chanson
ɛ̃ impair[12] French vingt-et-un
e Element[16] roughly like dress
i Italien[16] seat
o originell[16] story, but short
õ fon[12] French Mont Blanc
œ̃ Lundist[12] French vingt-et-un
ø Ökonom[16] roughly like hurt
u Universität, Souvenir[16] truth
y Psychologie[16] like meet, but with the lips rounded

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