Wives of King Henry VIII

A portrait of Henry VIII, painted c. 1520

In common parlance, the wives of Henry VIII were the six queens consort wedded to Henry between 1509 and his death in 1547. In legal terms, King Henry VIII of England had only three wives, because three of his marriages were annulled. Annulments essentially declare that a true marriage never took place, unlike a divorce, in which a married couple end their union.[1]

Overview

The six women who were married to Henry VIII, in chronological order:

No. Name Marriage dates and length Fate of marriage Fate of wife and issue
1 Catherine of Aragon 11 June 1509 – 23 May 1533
(23 years, 11 months and 12 days)
Annulled Died 7 January 1536. Mother of Queen Mary I.
2 Anne Boleyn 28 May 1533 – 17 May 1536
(2 years, 11 months and 19 days)
Annulled, then beheaded Died 19 May 1536. Beheaded at the Tower of London.
Mother of Queen Elizabeth I.
3 Jane Seymour 30 May 1536 – 24 October 1537
(1 year, 4 months and 24 days)
Died Died 24 October 1537, twelve days after giving birth due to complications.
Mother of King Edward VI.
4 Anne of Cleves 6 January 1540 – 9 July 1540
(6 months and 3 days)
Annulled Died 16 July 1557, possibly of cancer.
5 Catherine Howard 28 July 1540 – 23 November 1541
(1 year, 3 months and 26 days)
Beheaded Died 13 February 1542. Beheaded at the Tower of London.
6 Catherine Parr 12 July 1543 – 28 January 1547
(3 years, 6 months and 16 days)
Survived Survived Henry VIII. Later remarried to Thomas Seymour.
Died 7 September 1548.[2]

Henry's first marriage lasted nearly 24 years, while the following five lasted less than 10 years combined.

Catherine ParrCatherine HowardAnne of ClevesJane SeymourAnne BoleynCatherine of Aragon

A mnemonic device to remember the names of Henry’s consorts is “Arrogant Boys Seem Clever, Howard Particularly”; a mnemonic for their fates is "Divorced, beheaded, died; divorced, beheaded, survived". There are also two rhymes:[citation needed][year needed]

King Henry VIII,
To six wives he was wedded.
One died, one survived,
Two divorced, two beheaded.

and

Boleyn and Howard lost their heads,
Anne of Cleves he would not bed,
Jane Seymour gave him a son – but died before the week was done,
Aragon he did divorce,
Which just left Catherine Parr, of course!

It is often noted that Catherine Parr survived Henry, but Anne of Cleves also survived him and was the last of his queens to die. Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, and Jane Seymour each gave him one child who survived infancy: two daughters and one son. All three of these children eventually ascended to the throne as King Edward VI, Queen Mary I, and Queen Elizabeth I.

Catherine Howard and Anne Boleyn were first cousins and were both beheaded. Several of Henry's wives worked in service to another wife, typically as a lady-in-waiting. Anne Boleyn served Catherine of Aragon, Jane Seymour served both Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn, and Catherine Howard served Anne of Cleves.

Catherine of Aragon[edit]

Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536; Spanish: Catalina de Aragón) was Henry's first wife.[3][4] In modern sources her name is most commonly spelled Catherine, although she spelled and signed her name with a "K," which was an accepted spelling in England at the time.[5][6] After the death of Arthur, her first husband and Henry's brother, a papal dispensation was obtained to enable her to marry Henry, though the marriage did not take place until after he came to the throne in 1509. Prospects were looking good when Catherine became pregnant in 1510, just 4 months after their marriage, but the girl was stillborn. Catherine became pregnant again in 1511, and gave birth to a boy, Henry, Duke of Cornwall, who died almost two months later. In 1513, Catherine gave birth to a stillborn boy, and gave birth to a boy who died within hours in 1515. Finally, Catherine bore him a healthy daughter in 1516, Mary. It took her two years to conceive again. This pregnancy ended in a short-lived girl. It is said that Henry truly loved Catherine of Aragon, as he himself professed it many times in declarations, etc.

Henry, at the time a Roman Catholic, sought the Pope's approval for an annulment on the grounds that his marriage was invalid because Catherine had first been his brother's wife, using a passage from the Old Testament (Leviticus Chapter 20 Verse 21) to justify his stance: "If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an impurity; he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.” Henry had begun an affair with Anne Boleyn, who is said[by whom?] to have refused to become his mistress (Henry had already consummated an affair then dismissed Anne's sister, Mary Boleyn, and most historians believe that Anne wanted to avoid the same treatment)[citation needed]. Despite the pope's refusal, Henry separated from Catherine in 1531. In the face of the Pope's continuing refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine, Henry ordered the highest church official in England, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, to convene a court to rule on the status of his marriage to Catherine. On 23 May 1533,[4] Cranmer ruled the marriage to Catherine null and void. On 28 May 1533, he pronounced the King legally married to Anne (with whom Henry had already secretly exchanged wedding vows, probably in late January 1533). This led to the break from the Roman Catholic Church and the later establishment of the Church of England.

Shakespeare called Catherine "The Queen of Earthly Queens."

Marriage to Henry VIII: 11 June 1509 – 23 May 1533 (23 years, 11 months, 19 days); marriage annulled.

Anne Boleyn[edit]

Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn (c.1501/1507 – 19 May 1536) was Henry's second wife and the mother of Elizabeth I. Henry's marriage to Anne and her execution made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval at the start of the English Reformation. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn and Lady Elizabeth Boleyn (born Lady Elizabeth Howard), and she was of nobler birth than Jane Seymour, Henry's later wife. She was dark-haired with beautiful features and lively manners; she was educated in Europe, largely as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Claude of France.

Anne resisted the King's attempts to seduce her in 1526, and she refused to become his mistress as her sister Mary Boleyn had been. It soon became the one absorbing object of the King's desires to secure a divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne. He wrote a love letter which provides evidence of some level of intimacy between them, in which he admires her "pretty duckies" (breasts).[7] It eventually became clear that Pope Clement VII was unlikely to give the king an annulment, so Henry began to break the power of the Roman Catholic Church in England.

Henry had Thomas Wolsey dismissed from public office and later had the Boleyn family's chaplain Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1533, Henry and Anne went through a secret wedding service.[8] She soon became pregnant and there was a second, public wedding service in London on 25 January 1533. On 23 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. Five days later, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be good and valid. Soon after, the Pope launched sentences of excommunication against the King and the Archbishop. As a result of Anne's marriage to the King, the Church of England was forced to break with Rome and was brought under the king's control.[8] Anne was crowned Queen Consort of England on 1 June 1533, and she gave birth to Henry's second daughter Elizabeth on 7 September. However, she failed to produce a male heir, her only son being stillborn, and the King grew tired of her and annulled their marriage. Thomas Cromwell then devised a plot to execute her.

The evidence was unconvincing against Anne, but she was nonetheless beheaded on 19 May 1536 on charges of adultery, incest, and high treason. After Elizabeth's coronation as queen, Anne was venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation, particularly through the works of John Foxe. Over the centuries, she has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works.

Marriage to Henry VIII: 28 May 1533 – 17 May 1536 (2 years, 11 months, 19 days); annulled, then beheaded[9]

Jane Seymour[edit]

Jane Seymour

Jane Seymour (c.roughly 1508 – 24 October 1537) was Henry's third wife. She served Catherine of Aragon and was one of Anne Boleyn's ladies-in-waiting.[10] It is strongly believed[who?] that she is the mistress who disposed of Anne, who was executed just 10–11 days before Jane's marriage to the king. The daughter of a knight, she was of lower birth than most of Henry's wives. Finally, a year later, Jane gave birth to a healthy, legitimate male heir, Edward, but she died twelve days later, presumably because of postpartum complications. This apparently caused her husband genuine grief, as she was the only queen to receive a proper Queen's burial; when the King died in 1547, he was buried next to her.

Marriage to Henry VIII: 30 May 1536 – 24 October 1537 (1 year, 4 months, 24 days); death from complications of childbirth.

Anne of Cleves[edit]

Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves (22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was Henry's fourth wife, for only six months in 1540, from 6 January to 9 July. Anne of Cleves was a German princess.[11] It has been stated that Henry referred to her as "A Flanders Mare", which may or may not be true; nevertheless, the label has stuck with Anne.[12] Her pre-contract of marriage with Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, was cited as grounds for an annulment. Anne agreed to this, claiming that the marriage had not been consummated, and because she hadn't resisted the annulment, was given a generous settlement, including Hever Castle, former home of Henry's former in-laws, the Boleyns. She was given the name "The King's Sister", and became a friend to him and his children until his death. She outlived both the King and his last two wives, making her the last of the six wives to die.

Marriage to Henry VIII: 6 January 1540 – 9 July 1540 (6 months, 3 days); annulled.

Catherine Howard[edit]

Catherine Howard

Catherine Howard (c.1523 – 13 February 1542) was Henry's fifth wife between 1540–1542, sometimes known as "the rose without a thorn". Henry was informed of her alleged adultery with Thomas Culpeper on 1 November 1541.[13]

Marriage to Henry VIII: 28 July 1540 – 23 November 1541 (1 year, 3 months, 26 days); beheaded.

Catherine Parr[edit]

Catherine Parr

Catherine Parr (1512 – 5 September 1548), also spelled Kateryn, was the sixth and last wife of Henry VIII, 1543–1547. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal and his wife Maud Green. Through her father, Catherine was a descendant of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Through John of Gaunt's daughter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland (Henry's great-great grandmother), she was Henry's third cousin, once removed. By Henry's paternal descent from another of John of Gaunt's children, John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, the two were also fourth cousins once removed.[14]

Catherine showed herself to be the restorer of Henry's court as a family home for his children. Catherine was determined to present the royal household as a close-knit one in order to demonstrate strength through unity to Henry's opposers.[citation needed] Perhaps Catherine's most significant achievement was Henry's passing of an act that confirmed both Mary's and Elizabeth's line in succession for the throne, despite the fact that they had both been made illegitimate by divorce or remarriage. Such was Henry's trust in Catherine that he chose her to rule as Regent while he was attending to the war in France and in the unlikely event of the loss of his life, she was to rule as Regent until nine-year-old Edward came of age.

Catherine also has a special place in history as she was the most married queen of England, having had four husbands in all; Henry was her third. She had been widowed twice before marrying Henry. After Henry's death, she married Thomas Seymour, uncle of Edward VI of England, to whom she had formed an attachment prior to her marriage with Henry. She had one child by Seymour, Mary, and died shortly after childbirth. Lady Mary's history is unknown, but she is not believed to have survived childhood.

Marriage to Henry VIII: 12 July 1543 – 28 January 1547 (3 years, 6 months, 16 days); his death at the age of 55.

Ancestry[edit]

Henry was distantly related to all six of his wives through their common ancestor, King Edward I of England,[15] through more than one ancestor.[16]

The following family tree of Henry VIII's six wives is the closest lineage of him.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1239–1307
Edward I
King of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1275-?
Margaret
Duchess of Brabant
 
 
 
c. 1282–1316
Elizabeth
Countess of Hereford
 
 
 
1284–1327
Edward II
King of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1300–1355
John III
Duke of Brabant
 
 
 
1312–1360
William
1st Earl of
Northampton
 
 
 
1312–1377
Edward III
King of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1323–1380
Margaret
Countess of Flanders
 
 
 
c. 1350–1385
Elizabeth
Countess of Arundel
 
 
 
1338–1368
Lionel
1st Duke of
Clarence
 
1340–1399
John
1st Duke of
Lancaster
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1350–1405
Margaret III
Countess of Flanders[17]
 
 
 
1366-1425
Elizabeth
Duchess of Norfolk
 
 
 
1355-1382
Philippa
5th Countess
of Ulster
 
1373–1418
Catherine
Queen of
Castile
 
c. 1379–1440
Joan
Countess of
Westmorland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1371–1419
John
Duke of Burgundy
 
 
 
1388-?
Margaret
de Mowbray
 
 
 
1371–1417
Lady Elizabeth
Montimer
 
1405–1454
John II
King of Castile
 
1400–1460
Richard
5th Earl of
Salisbury
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1393–1466
Marie
Duchess
of Cleves[18]
 
 
 
c. 1425–1485
John
1st Duke
of Norfolk
 
 
 
c. 1395–1436
Lady Elizabeth
Baroness
de Clifford
 
1451–1504
Isabella I
Queen of Castile
 
c. 1430-?
Alice
Baroness FitzHugh
of Ravensworth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1419–1481
John I
Duke of Cleves
 
 
 
1443–1524
Thomas
2nd Duke
of Norfolk
 
 
 
Mary Clifford[19][20]
 
Catherine
of Aragon

1485–1536
 
Elizabeth
Lady Parr
of Kendal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1458–1521
John II
Duke of Cleves
 
c. 1478–1539
Lord Edmund
Howard
 
c. 1480–1536
Elizabeth
Countess of
Wiltshire
 
Henry Wentworth
 
 
 
 
 
c. 1483–1517
Sir Thomas
Parr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1490-?
John III
Duke of Cleves[21]
 
Catherine
Howard

c. 1523–1542
 
Anne Boleyn
c. 1501–1536
 
c. 1478–1550
Margery
Wentworth
 
 
 
 
 
Catherine Parr
1512–1548
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anne of Cleves
1515–1557
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jane Seymour
c. 1508–1537

Armorial bearings[edit]

Coat of Arms of the Wives of King Henry VIII of England
Coat of Arms Armiger
(Date as Queen)
Notes Badges
Coat of Arms of Catherine of Aragon.svg
Catherine of Aragon
1509 – 1533
The Royal Arms, impaled with that of her parents the Catholic Monarchs. The blazon:[22][23]

Supporters:[22][23]

Badges:[24]

  • The pomegranate, the rose and the sheaf of arrows.

The sinister supporter came from the coat of arms of her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, who displayed his shield on the breast of a single-headed Apostolic eagle displayed. Catherine's badges were a commemoration of the conquest of Granada from the Moors, when the superiority of the Spanish archers gained a victory. Both badges were combined with the Tudor rose (Henry's dynastic symbol).[25]

Pomegranate & Rose Badge.svg
Coat of Arms of Anne Boleyn.svg
Anne Boleyn
1533 – 1536
The Royal Arms, impaled with that of her own arms as Marquess of Pembroke, which alluded to several of her ancestors, however remote. The blazon:[22][26]
  • Quarterly of six, 1st, 2nd and 3rd quarter, were Augmentations, 1st; Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, a label Azure, with three fleur-de-lis on each point Or (Duchy of Lancaster), 2nd; Azure, semé-de-lys Or, a label of three points Gules (Anjou-Naples), 3rd; Gules, a lion passant guardant Or (Aquitaine).
  • 4th; Quarterly, I and IV, Or, a chief indented Azure (Butler), II and III, Argent, a lion rampant Sable crowned Gules (Rochford).
  • 5th; Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, a label of three point Argent (Thomas of Brotherton).
  • 6th; Chequy Or and Azure (Warenne).

Supporters:[27][26]

  • Dexter: a leopard gorged with a royal coronet pendant therefrom a chain reflexed, over the back Or.
  • Sinister: a male griffin Argent, armed and tufted Or similarly gorged and chained.

Badge:[28]

  • A crowned falcon holding a sceptre.

The noted antiquarian and heraldist Charles Boutell commented that the: "Arms of Queen Anne Boleyn are the first which exemplify the usage, introduced by Henry VIII, of granting to his Consorts "Augmentations" to their paternal arms. It is a striking illustration of the degenerate condition of Heraldry under the second Tudor Sovereign."[22] The dexter supporter was intended to represent the leopard of Guyenne (Aquitaine). The sinister supporter was a heraldic creature from the badge of the Boleyn, as descended from Earls of Ormond (Butler).[29] The falcon badge was granted to Anne as Countess of Pembroke, this badge was also used by her daughter Queen Elizabeth I.

Silver Falcon Badge.svg
Coat of Arms of Jane Seymour.svg
Jane Seymour
1536 – 1537
The Royal Arms, impaled with that of her own arms and that of the Seymour family. The blazon:[27][30]
  • Quarterly of six, 1st; an Augmentation, Or, on a pile Gules, between six fleur-de-lis Azure, three lions passant guardant Or.
  • 2nd; Gules, two wings conjoined in lure Or (Seymour).
  • 3rd; Vair Azure and Argent (Beauchamp).
  • 4th; Argent, three demi-lions rampant, Gules (Stiny).
  • 5th; Per bend, Argent and Gules, three roses, bendwise countercharged (MacWilliams).
  • 6th; Argent, on a bend Gules, three leopard's head Or.

Supporters:[27]

  • Dexter: a lion guardant Or imperially crowned Proper.
  • Sinister: Unicorn Argent.

Badge:[28]

  • A phoenix rising from a castle, between Tudor roses.

An alternative set of supporters for Queen Jane was reportedly: "Dexter a unicorn argent, crowned and unguled or, collared with a double wreath of white daisies and red roses; Sinister, a panther incensed, striped with various colours, gorged with a coronet of crosses patée and fleurs de lys alternately and chained or."[30] The badge of the phoenix rising from the flames was granted posthumously by her son King Edward VI to his maternal relations (who became the Dukes of Somerset), who continues to use it as a crest in their coat of arms to this day.[31][32]

Phoenix and Castle Badge.svg
Coat of Arms of Anne of Cleves.svg
Anne of Cleves
January - July 1540
The Royal Arms, impaled with that of her father John III, Duke of Cleves. The blazon:[33]
  • Quarterly of seven, four in chief and three in base, 1st; Gules, an Inescutcheon Argent, overall an escarbuncle Or (Cleves).
  • 2nd; Or, a lion rampant Sable (Jülich).
  • 3rd; Azure, a lion rampant crowned Or (Schwarzburg).
  • 4th; Argent, a lion rampant double-queued gules, crowned Or (Limburg).
  • 5th; Or, a fess chequy Argent and Gules (Mark).
  • 6th; Argent, a lion rampant Gules, crowned Azure (Berg).
  • 7th; Argent, three chevronels Gules (Ravensberg).

Alternatively the arms of Cleves is used only, the blazon:[27]

  • Gules, an Inescutcheon Argent, overall an Escarbuncle Or (Cleves)

Badge:[34]

  • a lion rampant Sable
  • a escarbuncle Or

The black lion badge was apparently derived from her mother Maria of Jülich-Berg, who was the sole heir of William IV the Duke of Jülich-Berg.[34]

Coat of Arms of Catherine Howard.svg
Catherine Howard
1540 – 1541
The Royal Arms, impaled with that of her own as granted by the King. Her arms incorporated those of her family the Howards. Catherine's father Lord Edmund Howard, was the third son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Th blazon:[27][35]
  • Quarterly of four, 1st and 4th were Augmentations, 1st; Azure, three Fleurs-de-lys, in pale Or, between two flasches Ermine, each charged with a Rose Gules.
  • 2nd; Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, a label of three point Argent (Thomas of Brotherton).
  • 3rd; Gules, a bend between six cross-crosslets fitchy Argent, for augmentation to be charged on the bend, the Royal Shield of Scotland having a demi-lion only, which is pierced through the mouth with an arrow (Howard).
  • 4th; Azure, two Lions of England, the verge of the escutcheon charged with four half fleurs-de-lys Or.

Supporters:

  • Dexter: a lion guardant Or imperially crowned Proper.
  • Sinister: a white horse of Howard.
Coat of Arms of Catherine Parr.svg
Catherine Parr
1543 – 1547
The Royal Arms, impaled with that of her own as granted by the King. The arms allude to those of her family and the titles of her father Sir Thomas Parr. The blazon:[27][36][35]
  • Quarterly of six, 1st; an Augmentation, Argent, on a Pile Gules, between six Roses Gules, three other Roses Argent.
  • 2nd; Argent, two bars Azure, within a bordure engrailed Sable (Parr).
  • 3rd; Or, three water-bougets Sable (Ross of Kendal).
  • 4th; Vairy, a fesse Gules (Marmion).
  • 5th; Azure, three chevrons interlaced in base, a chief Or (FitzHugh).
  • 6th; Vert, three harts at gaze Or (Green).

Supporters:[35]

  • Dexter: a lion guardant Or imperially crowned Proper.
  • Sinister: a panther incensed, striped with various colours, gorged with a coronet of crosses patée and fleurs de lys alternately and chained Or.

Badge:[28]

  • A maiden's head crowned, rising from a large Tudor rose.

The sinister supporter was inherited from her maternal grandfather William FitzHugh, 4th Baron FitzHugh. Her badge was granted by the King, it combined the Tudor rose badge of Henry with a previous one used by the Queen's family. The House of Parr has assumed as a badge "a maiden's head, couped below the breasts, vested in ermine and gold, her hair of the last, and her temples encircled with red and white roses." This they inherited from the badge of Ross, of Kendal.[37]

Rose Maiden Badge.svg

In popular culture[edit]

Theatrical adaptations[edit]

Six is a one act pop-rock musical featuring all of the wives of King Henry VIII. Starting on Off-West End in 2018, each queen in the all-female ensemble has a featured song that tells the story of her relationship with the King. In addition, each of the queens' style and sound is based off of a modern day pop/soul singer bringing a familiar breakup-anthem feel to the stories of these historic women. This show brings attention to how these women are often only remembered in history as ex-wives of Henry VIII and therefore remembered through their relationship with him. A major theme of the show is how women should be the ones to tell their story and how much more there is to their story than how their relationship with Henry ended. The musical was written by Toby Marlow and Lucy Moss[38]. In May 2019, Six had its North American premier at the Chicago Shakespeare Theater.[39] The tag line of the show alludes to the famous rhyme describing the queens' fates, "Divorced. Beheaded. LIVE in concert!" [40]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Goldhill, Olivia (26 January 2016). "Did Henry VIII really have six wives? Why everything you think you know about the Tudors is wrong". The Daily Telegraphy. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  2. ^ Hanson, Marilee (31 January 2015). "Katherine Parr --Facts, Information, Biography & Portraits". English History. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  3. ^ Erickson, Carolly (2007). Great Harry: A Biography of Henry the VII. St. Martin's Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-312-16858-6.
  4. ^ a b Lacey Baldwin Smith, Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty, p. 116
  5. ^ Wikipedia. "Catherine of Aragon". [circular reference]
  6. ^ Davies, C.S.L.; Edwards, John (2011). "Katherine [Catalina, Catherine, Katherine of Aragon] (1485-1536)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4891.
  7. ^ "Love Letter of King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn, 1533". www.luminarium.org.
  8. ^ a b "Anne Boleyn 1507–1536." World Book Encyclopedia. "19th ed". 2001. Print.
  9. ^ "Anne Boleyn". tudorhistory.org.
  10. ^ Jokinen, Anniina. "The Six Wives of King Henry VII" 2007. Web. 7 May 2009.
  11. ^ "Anne of Cleves." World Book Encyclopedia. "19th ed". 2001. Print.
  12. ^ Burnett "History of the Reformation of England" Print
  13. ^ "Catherine Howard." World Book Encyclopaedia. "19th ed". 2001. Print.
  14. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "e274.htm". The Peerage. [unreliable source]
  15. ^ Antonia Fraser, The Wives of Henry VIII, genealogical tables
  16. ^ "English Ancestry of The Six Wives: Descent from Edward I". 22 September 2012.
  17. ^ Anselme. Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France. 2, p. 741.
  18. ^ Poupardin 1911, p. 445.
  19. ^ Richardson I 2011, pp. 507–8.
  20. ^ Richardson III 2011, p. 236.
  21. ^ Antonia Fraser. The Wives of Henry VIII (Vintage Books, 1993), Chapter: Anne of Cleves.
  22. ^ a b c d Boutell p. 242
  23. ^ a b Pinces & Pinces p. 141
  24. ^ Aveling p. 307
  25. ^ Pinces & Pinces p. 142
  26. ^ a b Pinces & Pinces p. 144
  27. ^ a b c d e f Boutell p. 243
  28. ^ a b c Aveling p. 308
  29. ^ Willement p. 69
  30. ^ a b Pinces & Pinces p. 146
  31. ^ Willement p. 71
  32. ^ Fox Davies p. 597
  33. ^ Pinces & Pinces p. 147
  34. ^ a b Willement p. 72
  35. ^ a b c Pinces & Pinces p. 148
  36. ^ Boutell p. 244
  37. ^ Willement p. 75
  38. ^ http://feastcreative.com, Feast Creative |. "Six the Musical". www.sixthemusical.com. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  39. ^ "Chicago Shakespeare Theater: SIX". www.chicagoshakes.com. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  40. ^ http://feastcreative.com, Feast Creative |. "Six the Musical". www.sixthemusical.com. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

Bibliography[edit]

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