World War II casualties

Soviet soldiers killed during the Toropets–Kholm Offensive, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war, including millions of POWs.
Einsatzgruppen murdering Jewish civilians outside Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942.
Bodies of American soldiers on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting. Over 6,000 American and Japanese troops died in the fighting.

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. An estimated total 70-85 million people perished, which was about 3% of the 1940 world population (est. 2.3 billion).[1]

The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses. World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total deaths ranging from 70 million to 85 million.[2] Deaths directly caused by the war, military and civilians killed are estimated at 50-56 million people There were an additional estimated 19 to 28 million deaths from war-related disease and famine.

Civilians deaths totaled 50 to 55 million. Military deaths from all causes totaled 21 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war. Statistics on the number of military wounded are included whenever available. More than half of the total number of casualties are accounted for by the dead of the Republic of China and of the Soviet Union. The government of the Russian Federation in the 1990s published an estimate of USSR losses at 26.6 million,[3][4] including 8 to 9 million due to famine and disease.[4][5][6] These losses are for the territory of the USSR in the borders of 1946–1991, including territories annexed in 1939–40. The People's Republic of China as of 2005 estimated the number of Chinese casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded.[7]

In 2000, the total number of German military dead was estimated at 5.3 million by Rüdiger Overmans of the Military History Research Office (Germany); this number includes 900,000 men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders, in Austria, and in east-central Europe. Civilian deaths are not included.[8][9][10] However, in 2005 the German government put the war dead at 7,395,000 persons (including 4,300,000 military dead and missing) from Germany, Austria, and men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders.[11]

The number of Polish dead are estimated to number between 5.6 and 5.8 million according to the Institute of National Remembrance (2009).[12] Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) and 3 million Jews were victims of German Occupation policies and the war for a total of just under 5 million dead."[13]

The Japanese government as of 2005 put the number of Japanese deaths at 3.1 million.[14]

Classification of casualties

Polish military officers executed by the Soviet NKVD in the Katyn massacre, exhumation photo taken by the Polish Red Cross delegation in 1943.

Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths and wounded caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed and wounded during World War II.[15] The authors of the Oxford Companion to World War II maintain that "casualty statistics are notoriously unreliable."[16] The table below gives data on the number of dead and military wounded for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is disputed. Since casualty statistics are sometimes disputed the footnotes to this article present the different estimates by official governmental sources as well as historians. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, German war crimes, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, Allied war crimes, and deaths due to war related famine and disease.

The sources for the casualties of the individual nations do not use the same methods, and civilian deaths due to starvation and disease make up a large proportion of the civilian deaths in China and the Soviet Union. The losses listed here are actual deaths; hypothetical losses due to a decline in births are not included with the total dead. The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear-cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Germany, and Yugoslavia, sources can give only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war-related famine. The casualties listed here include 19 to 25 million war-related famine deaths in the USSR, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.[17][18]

The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human losses by country

Total deaths

  • Figures are rounded to the nearest hundredth place.
  • Military casualties include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non-combat causes. Partisan and resistance fighter deaths are included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military deaths. Whenever possible the details are given in the footnotes.
  • The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, French and foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses. For example, Michael Strank is included with American not Czechoslovak war dead.
  • Civilian war dead are included with the nations where they resided. For example, German Jewish refugees in France who were deported to the death camps are included with French casualties in the published sources on the Holocaust.
  • The official casualty statistics published by the governments of the United States, France, and the UK do not give the details of the national origin, race and religion of the losses.
  • Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, German war crimes, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, Allied war crimes, and deaths due to war related famine and disease. The exact breakdown is not always provided in the sources cited.

Nazi Germany

  • German sources do not provide figures for Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany. Russian historian Grigoriy Krivosheyev puts the losses of the "Vlasovites, Balts and Muslims etc." in German service at 215,000[179]

USSR

The estimated breakdown for each Soviet republic of total war dead[13]^AY4

Soviet Republic Population 1940 (within 1946–91 borders) Military deaths Civilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to
war related famine and disease
Total Deaths as % of 1940 population
Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 180,000 13.6%
Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 9.1%
Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,360,000 310,000 2,290,000 25.3%
Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 7.6%
Georgia 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 8.3%
Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 10.7%
Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 7.8%
Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 190,000 40,000 260,000 13.7%
Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 275,000 75,000 375,000 12.7%
Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 75,000 45,000 170,000 6.9%
Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 4,100,000 3,100,000 13,950,000 12.7%
Tajikistan 1,530,000 50,000 70,000 120,000 7.8%
Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 7.7%
Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 3,700,000 1,500,000 6,850,000 16.3%
Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 8.4%
Unidentified 165,000 130,000 295,000
Total USSR 194,090,000 10,600,000 10,000,000 6,000,000 26,600,000 13.7%

The source of the figures is Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow, 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. pp. 21–35. Erlikman, a Russian historian, notes that these figures are his estimates.

Holocaust deaths

Included in the figures of total war dead for each nation are victims of the Holocaust.

The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. Martin Gilbert estimates 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German occupied Europe were Holocaust victims.[190] Estimates of Holocaust deaths range between 4.9 and 5.9 million Jews.[191]

Statistical breakdown of Jewish dead:

The figures for the pre-war Jewish population and deaths in the table below are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.[191] The low, high and average percentage figures for deaths of the pre-war population have been added.

Country Pre-war Jewish population[191] in 1933 Low estimate deaths[191] High estimate deaths.[191] Low % High % Average %
Austria 191,000 (see footnote) 50,000 65,000 26.2% 34.0% 30.1%
Belgium 60,000 (see footnote) 25,000 29,000 41.7% 48.3% 45.0%
Czech Republic[195] 92,000 77,000 78,300 83.7% 85.1% 84.4%
Denmark 8,000 60 116 0.8 % 1.5% 1.1%
Estonia 4,600 1,500 2,000 32.6% 43.5% 38.0%
France 260,000 (see footnote) 75,000 77,000 28.8% 29.6% 29.2%
Germany 566,000 (see footnote) 135,000 142,000 23.9% 25.1% 24.5%
Greece 73,000 59,000 67,000 80.8% 91.8% 86.3%
Hungary (borders 1940)[196] 725,000 502,000 569,000 69.2% 78.5% 73.9%
Italy 48,000 6,500 9,000 13.5% 18.8% 16.1%
Latvia 95,000 70,000 72,000 73.7% 75.8% 74.7%
Lithuania 155,000 130,000 143,000 83.9% 92.3% 88.1%
Luxembourg 3,500 1,000 2,000 28.6% 57.1% 42.9%
Netherlands 112,000 (see footnote) 100,000 105,000 89.3% 93.8% 91.5%
Norway 1,700 800 800 47.1% 47.1% 47.1%
Poland (borders 1939) 3,250,000 2,700,000 3,000,000 83.1% 92.3% 87.7%
Romania (borders 1940) 441,000 121,000 287,000 27.4% 65.1% 46.3%
Slovakia 89,000 60,000 71,000 67.4% 79.8% 73.6%
Soviet Union (borders 1939) 2,825,000 700,000 1,100,000 24.8% 38.9% 31.9%
Yugoslavia 68,000 56,000 65,000 82.4% 95.6% 89.0%
Total 9,067,000 4,869,860 5,894,716 50.4% (avg.) 59.7% (avg.) 55.1% (avg.)
  • The total population figures from 1933 listed here are taken from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. From 1933 to 1939 about 400,000 Jews fled Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. Some of these refugees were in western Europe when Germany occupied these countries in 1940. In 1940 there were 30,000 Jewish refugees in the Netherlands, 12,000 in Belgium, 30,000 in France, 2,000 in Denmark, 5,000 in Italy, and 2,000 in Norway[197]
  • Hungarian Jewish losses of 569,000 presented here include the territories annexed in 1939–41.[198] The number of Holocaust dead in 1938 Hungarian borders were 220,000.[64] According to Martin Gilbert, the Jewish population inside Hungary's 1941 borders was 764,000 (445,000 in the 1938 borders and 319,000 in the annexed territories). Holocaust deaths from inside the 1938 borders was 200,000, not including 20,000 men conscripted as forced labor for the military.[199]
  • Netherlands figure listed in the table of 112,000 Jews taken from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust includes those Jews who were resident in Holland in 1933.

By 1940 the Jewish population had increased to 140,000 with the inclusion of 30,000 Jewish refugees.[197] In the Netherlands 8,000 Jews in mixed marriages were not subject to deportation.[200] However, an article in the Dutch periodical De Groene Amsterdammer maintains that some Jews in mixed marriages were deported before the practice was ended by Hitler.[201]

Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the other victims persecuted and killed by the Nazis.[205][206]

  • Donald L. Niewyk, professor of history at Southern Methodist University, maintains that the Holocaust can be defined in four ways: first, that it was the genocide of the Jews alone; second, that there were several parallel Holocausts, one for each of the several groups; third, the Holocaust would include Roma and the handicapped along with the Jews; fourth, it would include all racially motivated German crimes, such as the murder of Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, as well as political prisoners, religious dissenters, and homosexuals. Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people.[207]
  • According to the College of Education of the University of South Florida Approximately 11 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy.[208]
  • R.J. Rummel estimated the death toll due to Nazi Democide at 20.9 million persons.[209]
  • Timothy Snyder put the victims of the Nazis killed only as result of deliberate policies of mass murder such as executions, deliberate famine and in death camps at 10.4 million persons including 5.4 million Jews.[210]
  • German scholar Hellmuth Auerbach puts the death toll in the Hitler era at 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust and 7 million other victims of the Nazis.[211]
  • Dieter Pohl (de) puts the total number of victims of the Nazi era at between 12 and 14 million persons, including 5.6–5.7 million Jews.[212]
  • Roma Included in the figures of total war dead are the Roma victims of the Nazi persecution; some scholars include the Roma deaths with the Holocaust. Most estimates of Roma (Gypsies) victims range from 130,000 to 500,000.[207][213] Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma dead.[214] Hancock writes that, proportionately, the death toll equaled "and almost certainly exceed[ed], that of Jewish victims".[215] In a 2010 publication, Ian Hancock stated that he agrees with the view that the number of Romanis killed has been underestimated as a result of being grouped with others in Nazi records under headings such as "remainder to be liquidated", "hangers-on" and "partisans".[216]
  • In 2018, the United States Holocaust museum has the number of murdered during the time period of the holocaust at 17 million - 6 million Jews and 11 million others.[217]

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, the authors maintain that "statistics on Gypsy losses are especially unreliable and controversial. These figures (cited below) are based on necessarily rough estimates".[218]

Country Pre-war Roma population Low estimate victims High estimate victims
Austria 11,200 6,800 8,250
Belgium 600 350 500
Czech Republic[195] 13,000 5,000 6,500
Estonia 1,000 500 1,000
France 40,000 15,150 15,150
Germany 20,000 15,000 15,000
Greece ? 50 50
Hungary 100,000 1,000 28,000
Italy 25,000 1,000 1,000
Latvia 5,000 1,500 2,500
Lithuania 1,000 500 1,000
Luxembourg 200 100 200
Netherlands 500 215 500
Poland 50,000 8,000 35,000
Romania 300,000 19,000 36,000
Slovakia 80,000 400 10,000
Soviet Union (borders 1939) 200,000 30,000 35,000
Yugoslavia 100,000 26,000 90,000
Total 947,500 130,565 285,650
  • Handicapped persons: 200,000 to 250,000 handicapped persons were killed.[219] A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 and Action 14f13 programs at 200,000.[220][221]
  • Prisoners of War: POW deaths in Nazi captivity totalled 3.1 million[222] including 2.6 to 3 million Soviet prisoners of war.[223]
  • Ethnic Poles: According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "It is estimated that the Germans killed at least 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II."[224] They maintain that "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war."[225] However the Polish government affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) in 2009 estimated 2,770,000 ethnic Polish deaths due to the German occupation[226] (see World War II casualties of Poland).
  • Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians: According to Nazi ideology, Slavs were useless sub-humans. As such, their leaders, the Soviet elite, were to be killed and the remainder of the population enslaved, starved to death, or expelled further eastward. As a result, millions of civilians in the Soviet Union were deliberately killed, starved, or worked to death.[227] Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war and wartime-related famine account for a major part of the huge toll.[228] The Cambridge History of Russia puts overall civilian deaths in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 13.7 million persons including 2 million Jews. There were an additional 2.6 million deaths in the interior regions of the Soviet Union. The authors maintain "scope for error in this number is very wide". At least 1 million perished in the wartime GULAG camps or in deportations. Other deaths occurred in the wartime evacuations and due to war related malnutrition and disease in the interior. The authors maintain that both Stalin and Hitler "were both responsible but in different ways for these deaths", and "In short the general picture of Soviet wartime losses suggests a jigsaw puzzle. The general outline is clear: people died in colossal numbers but in many different miserable and terrible circumstances. But individual pieces of the puzzle do not fit well; some overlap and others are yet to be found".[229] Bohdan Wytwycky maintained that civilian losses of 3.0 million Ukrainians and 1.4 million Belarusians "were racially motivated".[230][231] According to Paul Robert Magocsi, between 1941 and 1945, approximately 3,000,000 Ukrainian and other non-Jewish victims were killed as part of Nazi extermination policies in the territory of modern Ukraine.[232] Dieter Pohl puts the total number of victims of the Nazi policies in the USSR at 500,000 civilians killed in the repression of partisans, 1.0 million victims of the Nazi Hunger Plan, c. 3.0 million Soviet POW and 1.0 million Jews (in pre-war borders).[233] Soviet author Georgiy A. Kumanev put the civilian death toll in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 8.2 million (4.0 million Ukrainians, 2.5 million Belarusians, and 1.7 million Russians).[234] A report published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1995 put the death toll due to the German occupation at 13.7 million civilians (including Jews): 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. Sources published in the Soviet Union were cited to support these figures.[235]
  • Homosexuals: According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "Between 1933 and 1945 the police arrested an estimated 100,000 men as homosexuals. Most of the 50,000 men sentenced by the courts spent time in regular prisons, and between 5,000 and 15,000 were interned in concentration camps." They also noted that there are no known statistics for the number of homosexuals who died in the camps.[236]
  • Other victims of Nazi persecution: Between 1,000 and 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy,[237] about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses,[238] and an unknown number of Freemasons[239] perished in Nazi prisons and camps. "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder."[240] During the Nazi era Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders were victims of Nazi persecution.[241]
  • Serbs: The numbers of Serbs murdered by the Ustaše is the subject of debate and estimates vary widely. Yad Vashem estimates over 500,000 murdered, 250,000 expelled and 200,000 forcibly converted to Catholicism.[242] The estimate of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is that the Ustaše murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia between 1941–45, with roughly 45,000 to 52,000 murdered at the Jasenovac concentration camp alone.[243] According to the Wiesenthal Center at least 90,000 Serbs, Jews, Gypsies and anti-fascist Croatians perished at the hands of the Ustashe at the camp at Jasenovac.[244] According to Yugoslav sources published in the Tito era the estimates of the number of Serb victims range from 200,000 to at least 600,000 persons.[245] See also World War II persecution of Serbs.

German war crimes

Naked Soviet POWs held by the Nazis in Mauthausen concentration camp. It is estimated that at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in German custody. [247]

Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust in which millions of Jews, Poles, and Romani were systematically murdered or died from abuse and mistreatment. Millions also died as a result of other German actions.

While the Nazi Party's own SS forces (in particular the SS-Totenkopfverbände, Einsatzgruppen and Waffen-SS) of Nazi Germany was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of the Holocaust, the regular armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht committed war crimes of their own, particularly on the Eastern Front in the war against the Soviet Union.

Japanese war crimes

Included with total war dead are victims of Japanese war crimes.

  • R. J. Rummel estimates the civilian victims of Japanese democide at 5,424,000. Detailed by country: China 3,695,000; Indochina 457,000; Korea 378,000; Indonesia 375,000; Malaya-Singapore 283,000; Philippines 119,000, Burma 60,000 and Pacific Islands 57,000.Rummel estimates POW deaths in Japanese custody at 539,000 Detailed by country: China 400,000; French Indochina 30,000; Philippines 27,300; Netherlands 25,000; France 14,000; Britain 13,000; British Colonies 11,000; US 10,700; Australia 8,000.[18][248]
  • Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian deaths at 20,365,000. Detailed by country: China 12,392,000; Indochina 1,500,000; Korea 500,000; Dutch East Indies 3,000,000; Malaya and Singapore 100,000; Philippines 500,000; Burma 170,000; Forced laborers in Southeast Asia 70,000, 30,000 interned non-Asian civilians; Timor 60,000; Thailand and Pacific Islands 60,000.[249][250] Gruhl estimates POW deaths in Japanese captivity at 331,584. Detailed by country: China 270,000; Netherlands 8,500; Britain 12,433; Canada 273; Philippines 20,000; Australia 7,412; New Zealand 31; and the United States 12,935.[249] Out of 60,000 Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity.[251] There were 14,657 deaths among the total 130,895 western civilians interned by the Japanese due to famine and disease.[252][253]

Oppression in the Soviet Union

The total war dead in the USSR includes about 1 million [254] victims of Stalin's regime. The number of deaths in the Gulag labor camps increased as a result of wartime overcrowding and food shortages.[255] The Stalin regime deported the entire populations of ethnic minorities considered to be potentially disloyal.[256] Since 1990 Russian scholars have been given access to the Soviet-era archives and have published data on the numbers of people executed and those who died in Gulag labor camps and prisons.[257] The Russian scholar Viktor Zemskov puts the death toll from 1941–1945 at about 1 million based on data from the Soviet archives.[254] The Soviet-era archive figures on the Gulag labor camps has been the subject of a vigorous academic debate outside Russia since their publication in 1991. J. Arch Getty and Stephen G. Wheatcroft maintain that Soviet-era figures more accurately detail the victims of the Gulag labor camp system in the Stalin era.[258][259] Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde have disputed the accuracy of the data from the Soviet archives, maintaining that the demographic data and testimonials by survivors of the Gulag labor camps indicate a higher death toll.[260][261] Rosefielde posits that the release of the Soviet Archive figures is disinformation generated by the modern KGB.[262] Rosefielde maintains that the data from the Soviet archives is incomplete; for example, he pointed out that the figures do not include the 22,000 victims of the Katyn massacre.[263] Rosefielde's demographic analysis puts the number of excess deaths due to Soviet repression at 2,183,000 in 1939–40 and 5,458,000 from 1941–1945.[264] Michael Haynes and Rumy Husun accept the figures from the Soviet archives as being an accurate tally of Stalin's victims, they maintain that the demographic data depicts an underdeveloped Soviet economy and the losses in World War Two rather than indicating a higher death toll in the Gulag labor camps.[265]

In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[188] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[266] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000.[267]

The Estonian State Commission for the Examination of Repressive Policies Carried out During the Occupations put civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 at 33,900 including (7,800 deaths) of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor. After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R., 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.[268]

The following is a summary of the data from the Soviet archives:
Reported deaths for the years 1939–1945 1,187,783, including: judicial executions 46,350; deaths in Gulag labor camps 718,804; deaths in labor colonies and prisons 422,629.[269]

Deported to special settlements: (figures are for deportations to Special Settlements only, not including those executed, sent to Gulag labor camps or conscripted into the Soviet Army. Nor do the figures include additional deportations after the war).
Deported from annexed territories 1940–41 380,000 to 390,000 persons, including: Poland 309–312,000; Lithuania 17,500; Latvia 17,000; Estonia 6,000; Moldova 22,842.[270] In August 1941, 243,106 Poles living in the Special Settlements were amnestied and released by the Soviets.[271]
Deported during the War 1941–1945 about 2.3 million persons of Soviet ethnic minorities including: Soviet Germans 1,209,000; Finns 9,000; Karachays 69,000; Kalmyks 92,000; Chechens and Ingush 479,000; Balkars 37,000; Crimean Tatars 191,014; Meskhetian Turks 91,000; Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians from Crimea 42,000; Ukrainian OUN members 100,000; Poles 30,000.[272]
A total of 2,230,500[273] persons were living in the settlements in October 1945 and 309,100 deaths were reported in special settlements for the years 1941–1948.[274]

Russian sources list Axis prisoner of war deaths of 580,589 in Soviet captivity based on data in the Soviet archives (Germany 381,067; Hungary 54,755; Romania 54,612; Italy 27,683; Finland 403, and Japan 62,069).[275] However some western scholars estimate the total at between 1.7 and 2.3 million.[276]

Military casualties by branch of service

Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoners of war Captured Percent killed
Germany Army[277] 13,600,000 4,202,000 30.9
Germany Air Force (including infantry units)[277] 2,500,000 433,000 17.3
Germany Navy[277] 1,200,000 138,000 11.5
Germany Waffen SS[277] 900,000 314,000 34.9
Germany Volkssturm and other Paramilitary Forces[277] 231,000
Germany Total (incl. conscripted foreigners) 18,200,000 5,318,000 6,035,000 11,100,000 29.2
Japan[278][279] Army (1937–1945) 6,300,000 1,326,076 85,600 30,000 24.2
Japan Navy (1941–1945) 2,100,000 414,879 8,900 10,000 19.8
Japan POW dead after Surrender.[280][281][282] 381,000
Japan Imperial Japan Total 8,400,000 2,121,955 94,500 40,000 25.3
Italy Army 3,040,000 246,432 8.1
Italy Navy 259,082[283] 31,347 12.0
Italy Air Force 130,000[284] 13,210 10.2
Italy Partisan forces 80,000[285] to 250,000[286][287] 35,828 14 to 44
Italy RSI forces 520,000[288] 13,021 to 35,000 2.5 to 6.7
Italy Total Italian Forces 3,430,000[289][290] 319,207[291] to 341,000 320,000 1,300,000[292] 9.3 to 9.9
Soviet Union (1939–40) All branches of service[293] 136,945 205,924
Soviet Union (1941–45) All branches of service[294] 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,050,000 25.1
Soviet Union Conscripted Reservists not yet in active service (see note below)[295] 500,000
Soviet Union Civilians in POW camps (see note below)[296] 1,000,000 1,750,000
Soviet Union Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units[297] 400,000
Soviet Union Total Soviet Forces 34,476,700 10,725,345 14,915,517 5,750,000 31.1
British Empire and Commonwealth[67][298][299] All branches of service 17,843,000 580,497 475,000 318,000 3.3
United States[300] Army[301] 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 124,079[301][302] 2.8
United States Air Force (included with Army)[301] (3,400,000) (88,119) (17,360) 2.5
United States Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 3,848[303] 1.5
United States Maritime Service 215,000 9,400 12,000 663[304] 4.5
United States Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 2,274[305][303] 3.7
United States Coast Guard[306] 241,093 1,917 0.8
United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps[307] 2,600 8[308] 0.3
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps[309] 3
United States Total U.S. Armed Forces 16,353,639 407,316 671,846 130,201[310][311] 2.5

Germany

  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown;[312] 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post-war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity.[313]
  2. Rüdiger Overmans writes "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody".[314]
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the war.[315]

USSR

  1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead in 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million.[297] There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939–40 during the Winter War with Finland.[316]
  2. The official figures for military war dead and missing in 1941–45 are 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non-combat deaths.[317] 500,000 missing in action and 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[318][319][320] Figures include Navy losses of 154,771.[321] Non-combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial.[322]
  3. Casualties in 1939–40 include the following dead and missing: Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931), Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139), Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).[293]
  4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.[323]
  5. The official Russian figure for total POW held by the Germans is 4,059,000; the number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,016,000, including 180,000 who most likely emigrated to other countries, and an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated. This leaves 1,103,000 POW dead. However, western historians put the number of POW held by the Germans at 5.7 million and about 3 million as dead in captivity (in the official Russian figures 1.1 million are military POW and remaining balance of about 2 million are included with civilian war dead).[318][324]
  6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths.[296]

British Commonwealth

  1. Number served: UK and Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India-(British colonial administration) (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).[325]
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK and Crown Colonies (383,786); India-(British colonial administration) (87,032), Australia (40,464); Canada (45,383); New Zealand (11,929); South Africa (11,903).[326]
  3. Total military dead for the United Kingdom alone(according to preliminary 1945 figures): 264,443. Royal Navy (50,758); British Army (144,079); Royal Air Force (69,606).[327][328]
  4. Wounded: UK and Crown Colonies (284,049); India-(British colonial administration) (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363).[298][329][330]
  5. Prisoner of war: UK and Crown Colonies (180,488); India-(British colonial administration) (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415).[298][329][330]
  6. The Debt of Honour Register from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[331]

U.S.

  1. Battle deaths (including POWs who died in captivity, does not include those who died of disease and accidents)[301] were 292,131: Army 234,874 (including Army Air Forces 52,173); Navy 36,950; Marine Corps 19,733; and Coast Guard 574 (185,924 deaths occurred in the European/Atlantic theater of operations and 106,207 deaths occurred in Asia/Pacific theater of operations).[301][332]
  2. During World War II, 14,059 American POWs died in enemy captivity throughout the war (12,935 held by Japan and 1,124 held by Germany).[333]
  3. During World War II, 1.2 million African Americans served in the U.S. Armed Forces and 708 were killed in action. 350,000 American women served in the Armed Forces during World War II and 16 were killed in action.[334] During World War II, 26,000 Japanese-Americans served in the Armed Forces and over 800 were killed in action.[335]

Commonwealth military casualties

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) Annual Report 2014–2015[67] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire. The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated by the CWGC are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former UK Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of CWGC the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 3 September 1939 to 31 December 1947.

See also

Footnotes

References

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  120. ^ League of Nations Yearbook 1942 p.22
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  124. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993; ISBN 0415101948 p.429. (1939 population including annexed territories 188.794 million)
  125. ^ G. F. Krivosheyev (1993) "Soviet Armed Forces Losses in Wars, Combat Operations and Military Conflicts: A Statistical Study". Military Publishing House Moscow. (Translated by U.S. government) p.121 Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  126. ^ Krivosheev, G. F., ed. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-280-7. page 85 (8,8668,000, including 1,283,000 POW and 500,000 missing)
  127. ^ "Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-28. (8.668 million including 1.783 million POW and missing)
  128. ^ Hartmann, Christian (2013). Operation Barbarossa: Nazi Germany's War in the East, 1941–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-966078-0. 11.4 million
  129. ^ Ian Dear (1995). Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press 1995. p. 290. ISBN 978-0198662259. (10 million military dead)
  130. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004; ISBN 5-93165-107-1, pp. 20-21(10,600,000, including 2.6 million POW)
  131. ^ S. N. Mikhalev, Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie, Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet, 2000; ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6, pp. 18–21. S. N. Mikhalev, Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945: A Statistical Investigation; Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University (in Russian) (10.922 million total dead and missing)
  132. ^ a b Zemskov, Viktor. "The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War (in Russian)". demoscope.ru # 559-60, July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  133. ^ Ian Dear (1995). Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press 1995. p. 290. ISBN 978-0198662259. (10 million civilian dead)
  134. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004; ISBN 5-93165-107-1, pp. 20-21 (10,000,000)
  135. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995; ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 pp. 124–27 (10,242,000 including 7,420,000 killed by intentional acts of violence, 2,164,000 as forced labor for Germany and 658,000 in siege of Leningrad)
  136. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993; ISBN 0415101948 p.429.
  137. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 127 and 158 (6.6 to 7.1 million deaths due to famine and disease including 4.1 million in German occupied USSR and 2.5 – 3.2 million deaths in area not occupied by Germany)
  138. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004; ISBN 5-93165-107-1, p. 20-21(5,500,000 famine and disease deaths plus repression 1.4 million deaths (200,000 executed,1.2 million deaths in Gulag and Special Settlements)
  139. ^ Zemskov, Viktor. "The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War(in Russian)". demoscope.ru # 559-60, July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017. Viktor Zemskov maintains that the figure of 27 million total war dead includes about 7 million deaths due to natural causes based on the mortality rate that prevailed before the war
  140. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993. ISBN 0415101948 pp. 434–436 (26.6 million war dead includes a decline in natural deaths of 3.0 million and a 1.3 million increase in infant mortality)
  141. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004; ISBN 5-93165-107-1, p. 20-21(26,500,000)
  142. ^ R. W. Davies (1994). Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge University Press 2005. pp. 77–79. ISBN 978-0521457705. Total losses of 26.6 million out of a 1939 population of 188.8 million, which included 20.3 million annexed territories
  143. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309 (26.6 million)
  144. ^ "Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-28. (26 to 27 million)
  145. ^ a b "Swedish Volunteer Corps". Svenskafrivilliga.com. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
  146. ^ Lennart Lundberg Handelsflottan under andra världskriget p.9
  147. ^ Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II by Jonathan E. Helmreich
  148. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
  149. ^ a b Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n:
  150. ^ a b "SS_Refah, Graces Guide". Retrieved 2015-06-23.
  151. ^ Jan Lahmeyer. "The UNITED KINGDOM : country population". www.populstat.info. Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  152. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission (2015-04-12). "Annual Report 2014-2015". issuu. p. 39. Retrieved 2019-03-05. Table: 'Breakdown of War Dead by Forces'. Figures include identified burials as and those commemorated by name on memorials attributed to the United Kingdom.
  153. ^ "Civilian War Dead Roll of Honour 1939 - 1945". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 2019-03-05. In 2017, "several hundred" new names were added which are not part of this statistic.
  154. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission (2014-05-11). "Annual Report 2013-2014". issuu. p. 43. Retrieved 2019-03-05. References the War Dead Roll of Honour. Figures include civilians killed in the Battle of Britain, Siege of Malta (World War II), and civilians interned by enemy nations.
  155. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
  156. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. 156
  157. ^ a b c d I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot Oxford Companion to World War II Oxford, 2005; ISBN 0-19-280670-X, p. 290
  158. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses (pp. 744–50)
  159. ^ a b c d e f g h i Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p.78 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  160. ^ "Austria facts and Figures Page 44">Austria facts and Figures p. 44
  161. ^ a b c "Bundeskanzleramt der Republik Österreich - Startseite - Bundeskanzleramt Österreich". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at.
  162. ^ File:DR1937.1.png
  163. ^ a b c Richard Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940–1945 (2013) pp. 304–7 (Overy noted that "No doubt this does not include all those who were killed or died of wounds, but it does include uniformed personnel, POWs, and foreign workers, and it applies to the Greater German area". Using the United States Strategic Bombing Survey data Overy calculated an average monthly death toll of 18,777 from September 1944 to January 1945, taking this monthly average he estimated losses of 57,000 from February to April 1945 to which he adds an additional 25,000 killed in Dresden for total deaths of 82,000 from February to April 1945. The figures up until the end of January 1945 of 271,000 and the 82,000 from February to April 1945 give an overall figure of 353,000 air war deaths. Overy summarizes: "Detailed reconstruction of deaths caused by the Royal Air Force bombing from February to May 1945, though incomplete, suggests a total of at least 57,000. If casualties inflicted by the American air forces are assumed to be lower, since their bombing was less clearly aimed at cities, an overall death toll of 82,000 is again statistically realistic. In the absence of unambiguous statistical evidence, the figure of 353,000 gives an approximate scale consistent with the evidence".)
  164. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956
  165. ^ Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] pp. 31–33 (figure includes 170,000 German Jews). The West German government did not list euthanasia victims along with the war dead.
  166. ^ a b c Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] pp. 31–33 (they give figure of 300,00 German deaths due to racial, religious and political persecution including 170,000 Jews. Figure does not include the Nazi euthanasia program
  167. ^ a b Bundesarchiv Euthanasie" im Nationalsozialismus Archived 2013-10-21 at the Wayback Machine 2003 report by German Federal Archive puts the dead toll in the Nazi euthanasia program at over 200,000
  168. ^ German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945–1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 P.41(100,000 during wartime flight; 200,000 in USSR as forced labor and 100,000 in internment camps)
  169. ^ a b Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office)
  170. ^ Rüdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 p.228(Overmans uses the German description "Deutsche nach Abstammung" German according to ancestry
  171. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p. 79 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  172. ^ a b German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945–1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 P.53(38,000 during wartime flight; 5,000 in USSR as forced labor and 160,000 in internment camps)
  173. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p.79 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  174. ^ a b The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, pp. 78–79
  175. ^ Rüdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 333
  176. ^ a b The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  177. ^ a b "Austria facts and Figures Page 44">Austria facts and Figures p. 44 The Austrian government estimates 100,000 victims of Nazi persecution including 65,000 Jews.
  178. ^ German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945–1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 pp. 53–54
  179. ^ a b Krivosheev, G. F., ed. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-280-7. page 278
  180. ^ a b c Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993; ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9, p.118
  181. ^ "НАСЕЛЕНИЕ Советского Союза 1922–1991" (PDF). Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  182. ^ a b 'Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0  pp.82–84
  183. ^ a b Naselenie Rossii v XX Veke: V 3-kh Tomakh: Tom 2. 1940–1959 [The Population of Russia in the 20th century: volume 2]
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  185. ^ S. Maksudov Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR 1918–1958 The Samizdat register II / edited by Roy Medvedev New York : Norton, 1981. pp.238–240)
  186. ^ Mały Rocznik Statystyczny Polski 1939–1941
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  195. ^ a b Since the Czech Republic as political entity exists only since 1969/1993, this political name stands for Czech part (Czech lands – during the war divided into so-called Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia and Sudetenland) of then-occupied Czechoslovakia.
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  203. ^ Post-war map of Romania
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  212. ^ Dieter Pohl, Verfolgung und Massenmord in der NS-Zeit 1933–1945, WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), 2003; ISBN 3534151585, p. 153
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  216. ^ Danger! Educated Gypsy, p. 243, University of Hertfordshire Press, 2010
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  224. ^ "POLISH VICTIMS". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.
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  226. ^ "Tomasz Szarota 1945">Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 page 32. Foreword by Janusz Kurtyka. (Digital copy: Internet Archive Wayback Machine)
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  229. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press (2006), pp. 225–27; ISBN 0-521-81144-9
  230. ^ Bohdan Wytwycky,The Other Holocaust: Many Circles of Hell The Novak Report, 1980
  231. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. (2000) The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000; ISBN 0-231-11200-9, p. 49
  232. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 9780802078209.
  233. ^ Dieter Pohl, Verfolgung und Massenmord in der NS-Zeit 1933–1945, WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), 2003; ISBN 3534151585, pp. 109, 128, 153
  234. ^ Michael Berenbaum (ed.), A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis, New York University Press, 1990; ISBN 1-85043-251-1
  235. ^ Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles (In Russian). Saint-Petersburg, 1995; ISBN 5-86789-023-6. M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941–1945, pp. 124–31.
    The Russian Academy of Science article by M. V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.
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  237. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "How many Catholics were killed during the Holocaust?"". Ushmm.org. Archived from the original on May 23, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  238. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Jehovah's Witnesses"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
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  242. ^ "Croatia" profile, Yad Vashem, Shoah Resource Center.
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  244. ^ "Wiesenthal Center: Croatia Must Act To Counter Veneration Of Fascist Ustashe Past | Simon Wiesenthal Center". Retrieved 2018-06-21.
  245. ^ Vladimir Dedijer, History of Yugoslavia, McGraw-Hill Inc. (USA), 1975; ISBN 0-07-016235-2, p. 582
  246. ^ "The German Military and the Holocaust". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  247. ^ Adam Jones (2010), Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (2nd ed.), p. 271. – "'" Next to the Jews in Europe," wrote Alexander Werth', "the biggest single German crime was undoubtedly the extermination by hunger, exposure and in other ways of [...] Russian war prisoners." Yet the murder of at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs is one of the least-known of modern genocides; there is still no full-length book on the subject in English. It also stands as one of the most intensive genocides of all time: "a holocaust that devoured millions," as Catherine Merridale acknowledges. The large majority of POWs, some 2.8 million, were killed in just eight months of 1941–42, a rate of slaughter matched (to my knowledge) only by the 1994 Rwanda genocide."
  248. ^ R. J. Rummel. Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 [3]
  249. ^ a b Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 (Werner Gruhl is former chief of NASA's Cost and Economic Analysis Branch with a lifetime interest in the study of the First and Second World Wars.)
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  252. ^ Van Waterford, Prisoners of the Japanese in World War II, McFarland & Co., 1994; ISBN 0-89950-893-6, pp. 141–46 (figures taken from De Japanse Burgenkampen by D. Van Velden
  253. ^ Bernice Archer, The internment of Western civilians under the Japanese, 1941–1945: a patchwork of internment. London, New York: Routledge Curzon, 2004. ISBN 962-209-910-6, p. 5
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  256. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will
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  258. ^ J. Arch Getty, Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Prewar Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence, (with Gabor T. Rittersporn, and V. N. Zemskov), American Historical Review, 98:4, Oct. 1993
  259. ^ Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data-Not the Last Word Europe-Asia Studies Volume 51, Issue 2, 1999
  260. ^ Robert Conquest, "Excess deaths and camp numbers: Some comments", Soviet Studies Volume 43, Issue 5, 1991
  261. ^ Steven Rosefielde, Red Holocaust, Routledge, 2009; ISBN 0-415-77757-7
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  263. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009; ISBN 0-415-77757-7, p. 59
  264. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009; ISBN 0-415-77757-7, p 179 (Rosefielde's figures were derived by estimating the population from 1939 to 1945 using hypothetical birth and death rates; he then compares this 1945 estimated population to the actual ending population in 1945. The difference is 31.0 million excess deaths of which 23.4 million are attributed to the war and 7.6 million to Soviet repression)
  265. ^ Michael Haynes. A Century Of State Murder?: Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia, Pluto Press, 2003; ISBN 0745319300, pp. 62–89.
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  270. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, p. 123
  271. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, p. 119
  272. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, pp. 123–57
  273. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953, McFarland & Company, 1997; ISBN 0-7864-0336-5, p. 133
  274. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953, McFarland & Company, 1997; ISBN 0-7864-0336-5, p. 148. The Soviet Archives did not provide the details by year of the figure of 309,100 deaths in the settlements.
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  283. ^ Giuseppe Fioravanzo, La Marina italiana nella seconda guerra mondiale, Volume XXI – L'organizzazione della Marina durante il conflitto, Tomo II: Evoluzione organica dal 10.6.1940 al 8.9.1943, Historical Branch of the Italian Navy, 1975, pp. 346–364
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  581. ^ Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–96, p. 1057n: "Deaths in the Thai military forces from 8 December 1941 through the end of the war included 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, and 4,942 soldiers. (Defense Ministry of Thailand, In Memory of Victims who Fell in Battle [in Thai], Bangkok: Krom phaenthi Thahanbok, 1947). With the exception of about 180 who died in the 8 December [1941] battles and another 150 who died in battles in the Shan states [Burma], almost all of the war dead died of malaria and other diseases."
  582. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
  583. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. Thailand exported rice to neighboring Japanese-occupied countries during 1942–45 (p 72n) and did not experience the notorious famines that occurred in India and French Indochina (see above) between 1943–44.
  584. ^ "Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2014-2015, p. 38". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 24 May 2016. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials
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  596. ^ Summary of Merchant Marine Personnel Casualties in World War II, US Coast Guard, Washington: Government Printing Office, July 1, 1950, p. VII
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  600. ^ Center for Internee Rights, Civilian prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands Turner Press 2002; ISBN 1-56311-838-6
  601. ^ The annual death rate in 1942–1945 of Americans interned by Japan was about 3.5%. There were 1,536 deaths among the 13,996 interned civilians in 1942–45.
    The United States interned about 100,000 Japanese Americans between 1942–45. The 1946 report by the U.S. Dept. of The Interior "The Evacuated People a Quantitative Description" gave the annual death rate in 1942–1945 of Japanese detained in the U.S. at about 0.7%. There were 1,862 deaths among the 100,000 to 110,000 American civilians of Japanese ancestry interned in the U.S. in 1942–45. The annual death rate among the U.S. population as a whole in 1942–45 was about 1.1% per annum.
  602. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.), 2002; ISBN 0-7864-1204-6, p. 552
  603. ^ Roger Mansell Captured: The Forgotten Men of Guam
  604. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.), 2002; ISBN 0-7864-1204-6, p. 552
  605. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.), 2002; ISBN 0-7864-1204-6, p. 580
  606. ^ Robert Goralski, World War II Almanac, 1939–1945: a political and military record, New York, p. 428
  607. ^ Sir John Keegan Atlas of the Second World War, HarperCollins 1997, pp. 204–05
  608. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, p. 733
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  611. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, Cap. 17 Alleged and True Population Losses
  612. ^ a b c Kočović, Bogoljub Žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji, 1990; ISBN 86-01-01928-5, pp. 172–89
  613. ^ Danijela Nadj (1993). Yugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims-The authors survey of the demographic and human war losses in Yugoslavia. Zagreb: Croatian Information Center. ISBN 978-0-919817-32-6. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  614. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, In Cap. 17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 737
  615. ^ Statistics of Democide (1997).
  616. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, p. 729
  617. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration, Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, p. 746
  618. ^ "Croatian President Mesic Apologizes for Croatian Crimes Against the Jews during the Holocaust". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
  619. ^ "JASENOVAC". USHMM. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
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  621. ^ a b Silberman, F. (2013). Memory and Postwar Memorials: Confronting the Violence of the Past. Springer. p. 79.
  622. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books, 1972; ISBN 0-465-01611-1, p. 184
  623. ^ Martin Gilbert Atlas of the Holocaust 1988; ISBN 0-688-12364-3, p. 244
  624. ^ Thomas M. Leonard, John F. Bratzel, George Lauderbaugh. Latin America in World War II, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (September 11, 2006), p. 83

External links

Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution