Writers of Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ; [ɡʊɾuː ɡɾəntʰᵊ saːhɪbᵊ]), is the central religious text of Sikhism, considered by Sikhs to be the final sovereign Guru of the religion.[1] It contains 1430 Angs (limbs), containing 5,894[2][3] hymns of 36 saint mystics which includes Sikh guru sahiban (6 gurus), Bhagats (15 bhagats), Bhatts (11 bhatts) and gursikhs (4 gursikhs). It is notable among foundational religious scriptures for including hymns from writers of other religions, namely Hindus and Muslims. It also contains teachings of Sikh gurus themselves and was written by Bhai Gurdas Ji (first version) and by Bhai Mani Singh Ji (second version).

Categorization of authors

Scholars categorize the authors of the Guru Granth Sahib into four groups:

  1. Sikh Gurus
  2. Bhagats
  3. Bhatts
  4. Gursikhs

Sikh gurus

Philosophically, Sikhs are bound to believe in Shabad Guru — the words written in the Guru Granth Sāhib ji — but the general belief is that the Sikh Gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469. The hymns of six Sikh Gurus are in the Guru Granth Sahib:


In the below list, the Bhagats (Punjabi: ਭਗਤ, from Sanskrit भक्त) were holy men of various sects whose teachings are included in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji. Their bani[clarification needed] come under the title Bani Bhagtaan Ki. The word "Bhagat" means devotee, and comes from the Sanskrit word Bhakti, which means devotion and love. Bhagats evolved a belief in one God that preceded Kabir's selecting the writings of the great Hindu Bhaktis and Sufi saints.

The 15 Bhagat authors were:[4]


Many Hindu Saraswat Brahmins who started to follow the word of Guru Nanak Dev were known as Bhatts[why?]. The 11 Bhatt authors were:


Bhai Sundar Ji, Bhai Mardana Ji, Bhai Satta Ji, Bhai Balwand Ji

Individuals and their contributions

Background Details and No. of Hymns
Name Timeline No. of Hymns
Guru Nanak 15th Century 974[5]
Guru Angad 16th Century 62[5]
Guru Amar Das 16th Century 907[5]
Guru Ram Das 16th Century 679[5]
Guru Arjan 16th Century 2218[5]
Guru Tegh Bahadur 17th Century 116[5]
Bhagat Jaidev 13th Century[3] 2
Bhagat Farid 13th Century 134[2][note 1][note 2]
Bhagat Ramanand 14th Century 1
Bhagat Namdev 14th Century 62
Bhagat Trilochan 14th Century 5
Bhagat Parmanand 14th Century 1
Bhagat Dhanna 14th Century 4
Bhagat Bhikhan 14th Century 2
Bhagat Beni 14th Century 3
Bhagat Pipa 14th Century 1
Bhagat Sain 14th Century 1
Bhagat Surdas 14th Century 2
Bhagat Sadhana 14th Century 1
Bhagat Ravidas 15th Century 41
Bhagat Kabir 15th Century 541[5][note 3]
Baba Sundar 15th Century 6
Satta and Balvand 15th Century 1 var[3]
Bhatt Kalshar 15th Century 54
Bhatt Balh 15th Century 5
Bhatt Bhalh 15th Century 1
Bhatt Bhika 15th Century 2
Bhatt Gayand 15th Century 13
Bhatt Harbans 15th Century 2
Bhatt Jalap 15th Century 5
Bhatt Kirat 15th Century 8
Bhatt Mathura 15th Century 14
Bhatt Nalh 15th Century 16
Bhatt Salh 15th Century 3

Controversial authors: Mardana and Tall

Two more writers of the present recension of Adi Granth are a matter of debate among scholars, namely Bhai Mardana and Bhatt Tall.

According to different scholars:

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