Zero-mode waveguide

A zero-mode waveguide is an optical waveguide that guides light energy into a volume that is small in all dimensions compared to the wavelength of the light.

Zero-mode waveguides have been developed for rapid parallel sensing of zeptolitre sample volumes, as applied to gene sequencing, by Pacific Biosciences (previously named Nanofluidics, Inc.)[1]

A waveguide operated at frequencies lower than its cutoff frequency (wavelengths longer than its cutoff wavelength) and used as a precision attenuator is also known as a "waveguide below-cutoff attenuator."[2]

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