/pol/

/pol/
Screenshot
Pol screenshot 9 Dec 2019.png
Screengrab of the front (catalog) page of /pol/ in December 2019, with each discussion thread indicated by an image
Type of site
4chan imageboard
Available in English
Owner Hiroyuki Nishimura
URL boards.4channel.org/pol/ Edit this at Wikidata
Commercial No
Registration No
Launched 2010; 11 years ago (2010)
Current status Online

/pol/ (Politically Incorrect) is a political discussion board on 4chan. The board's intended purpose is the "discussion of news, world events, political issues, and other related topics."[1]

A quantitative analysis found that /pol/ is an important influencer of news content on Twitter, with the board contributing 3% of mainstream news links and 1.96% of alternative news links on Twitter (as a fraction of all links co-appearing on Twitter, Reddit, and 4chan). The researchers concluded that "'fringe' communities often succeed in spreading alternative news to mainstream social networks."[2]

Overview

Much of the content on /pol/ relies heavily on memes to further spread ideas.[3] One of the most popular memes found on the board during the period surrounding the 2016 US presidential election was that of Pepe the Frog, which has been deemed a white supremacist symbol by some media outlets due to it being shown in uniforms, places, and people associated with Nazism, the Ku Klux Klan, and antisemitism.[4][5][6] Many have questioned the sincerity of users on /pol/ as possible trolls.[7][8]

History

/pol/'s predecessor, created in 2010, was removed a year later, because, according to 4chan's creator and ex-administrator Christopher Poole, it became "[S]tormfront,"[10] referring to the oldest and largest Holocaust-denialist white supremacist site,[11] due to its high volume of highly offensive discussion.[9] According to Christine Lagorio-Chafkin, /pol/ was created by "4chan's founder […] to siphon off and contain the overtly xenophobic and racist comments and memes from other wings of 4chan."[12] This has led to /pol/ acquiring the nickname of a "containment board", because its purpose is to keep far-right and generally political content off of 4chan's other boards.[13][14][15]

Reception and influence

/pol/ has been characterized as predominantly racist and sexist, with many of its posts taking explicitly alt-right and neo-Nazi points of view. In particular, the board is infamous for the prevalence of antisemitic threads and memes.[16][17][18][19][20][21] The Southern Poverty Law Center regards /pol/'s rhetorical style as widely emulated by white supremacist websites such as The Daily Stormer; the Stormer's editor, Andrew Anglin, concurred.[17] Many /pol/ users favored Donald Trump during his 2016 United States presidential campaign.[21] Upon his election, a /pol/ moderator embedded a pro-Trump video at the top of all of the board's pages.[22][23][24][25]

As a potential honeypot

Many have speculated whether the website is kept online as a honeypot for far right groups or to monitor extremists. In 2015, an Australian Department of Defence graduate used /pol/ to share classified information, only to be caught by another former Department of Defence worker browsing the site.[26] Within /pol/ suspected agents of various intelligence communities are called "Glowniggers",[27] a reference to the schizophrenic computer programmer Terry A. Davis who said "The CIA Niggers glow in the dark, you can see them if you're driving, you just run them over, that's what you do."[28] Because of this, suspicious posts are deemed to be "glowing" and "glowposting" is a common phrase on the forum.[29][additional citation(s) needed]

Notable events

/pol/ was where screenshots of Trayvon Martin's hacked social media accounts were initially posted.[30][31]

After the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, a Google search for a "registered democrat" named Geary Danley showed a /pol/ thread in the top stories section falsely identifying him as the shooter. A spokesperson for Google said that the thread appeared because search queries and news about the man were rare allowing for the thread to appear in the top stories section of the man's name but the thread did not appear in broader searches about the Las Vegas shooting.[32]

A popular meme that originated on /pol/ claims comedian Sam Hyde is the perpetrator of a mass shooting event or terrorist attack, in hopes of trolling a mainstream news outlet to report Hyde as the attacker.[33] The first instance of this hoax was the Umpqua Community College shooting. According to BBC News, CNN mistakenly included Hyde's image on their coverage of the shooting.[34]

Users of /pol/ engaged in coordinated attacks on LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner's HEWILLNOTDIVIDE.US, a performance art project made to protest Donald Trump's presidency.[35] Users also organised the It's OK to be white poster campaign.[36]

Users of the site devised a prank to make the OK hand sign appear to be a white supremacist symbol; this was done to "troll" the media into thinking it was, and thus cause the reporting of fake news. The sign resembles the letters WP, which users said stands for white power.[citation needed]

In 2019, /pol/ was temporarily blocked for containing videos of the Christchurch mosque shootings by Australian internet service providers.[37]

Statistics

According to a 2017 longitudinal study, using a dataset of over 8M posts, /pol/ is a diverse ecosystem with users well-distributed around the world. The percentage of posts containing hate speech ranges from 4.15% (e.g., in Indonesia, Arab countries) to 30% (e.g., China, Bahamas, Cyprus). Elevated use of hate speech is seen in Western European countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and France).[38][39]

According to Community Security Trust, many threads contain "explicit calls for Jews to be killed".[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Welcome to /pol/ - Politically Incorrect". 4chan /pol/. September 9, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2019 – via WebCite.
  2. ^ Zannettou, Savvas; Caulfield, Tristan; De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Kourtelris, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Sirivianos, Michael; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2017). "The Web Centipede: Understanding How Web Communities Influence Each Other Through the Lens of Mainstream and Alternative News Sources" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2017 Internet Measurement Conference. ACM. pp. 405–417. ISBN 978-1-4503-5118-8.
  3. ^ Hathaway, Jay (June 7, 2017). "What the Harvard teens don't get about memes". The Daily Dot. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  4. ^ "Pepe the Frog". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  5. ^ Roy, Jessica (October 11, 2016). "How 'Pepe the Frog' went from harmless to hate symbol". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  6. ^ Ellyatt, Holly (September 29, 2016). "Who is Pepe the Frog and why has he become a hate symbol?". CNBC. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  7. ^ Tait, Amelia (February 16, 2017). "First they came for Pepe: How "ironic" Nazism is taking over the internet". New Statesman. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  8. ^ Wilson, Jason (May 23, 2017). "Hiding in plain sight: how the 'alt-right' is weaponizing irony to spread fascism". The Guardian. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  9. ^ a b moot (January 19, 2011). "Why were /r9k/ and /new/ removed?". 4chan. Retrieved August 16, 2019 – via WebCite.
  10. ^ Beran, Dale (Jul 30, 2019). It Came from Something Awful: How a Toxic Troll Army Accidentally Memed Donald Trump into Office. St. Martin's Publishing Group. ISBN 9781250219473
  11. ^ "Stormfront". Hate on Display™ Hate Symbols Database. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  12. ^ Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (2018). "r/The_Donald". We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory. Hachette Books. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-316-43536-9.
  13. ^ ""Dennis Erasmus" — Containment Breach: 4chan's /pol/ and the Failed Logic of "Safe Spaces" for Far-Right Ideology". July 1, 2019.
  14. ^ Saeger, Eric W. (August 24, 2018). Russian Nazi Troll Bots!: The Busy Person's Guide to How Trump's Trolls Won the Internet, What's Ahead, and What You Can Do. Metro Clarion Media. ISBN 9781732583511 – via Google Books.
  15. ^ https://aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM17/paper/download/15670/14790
  16. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (September 25, 2014). "Absolutely everything you need to know to understand 4chan, the Internet's own bogeyman". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  17. ^ a b Siegel, Jacob (June 29, 2015). "Dylann Roof, 4chan, and the New Online Racism". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  18. ^ Alonso, Fernando III (June 13, 2014). "#EndFathersDay is the work of 4chan, not feminists". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  19. ^ Schwartz, Or (December 7, 2014). "4chan Trolls Take Over Electronic Billboard, Racism Ensues". Vocativ. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  20. ^ "Alt-Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  21. ^ a b Hine, Gabriel Emile; Onaolapo, Jeremiah; De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Samaras, Riginos; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2017). Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web (PDF). Proceedings of the 11th International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. p. 9. arXiv:1610.03452. Bibcode:2016arXiv161003452E. This paper presented the first large-scale study of /pol/, 4chan's politically incorrect board, arguably the most controversial one owing to its links to the alt-right movement and its unconventional support to Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign.
  22. ^ Lee, Oliver (March 13, 2016). "Understanding Trump's Troll Army". Motherboard. Vice Media. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  23. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (November 9, 2016). "'We actually elected a meme as president': How 4chan celebrated Trump's victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  24. ^ Steinblatt, Jacob (October 13, 2015). "Donald Trump Embraces His 4Chan Fans". Vocativ. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  25. ^ Schreckinger, Ben (March–April 2017). "World War Meme". Politico. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  26. ^ Fri, Aug 7th 2015 8:31am-Tim Cushing. "Man Leaks Sensitive Documents To 4chan; Receives Insults, Arrest For His Troubles". Techdirt. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  27. ^ "Richmond Gun Rally: Is A Virginia Cop Giving 4Chan's /pol Board Inside Info?". bellingcat. 2020-01-19. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  28. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  29. ^ Salo, Jackie; Moore, Tina (2019-08-13). "Why was Jeffrey Epstein's death on 4chan before it became public?". New York Post. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  30. ^ Bankoff, Caroline (March 29, 2012). "White Supremacist Claims to Have Hacked Trayvon Martin's Email, Social Media Accounts". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  31. ^ Mackey, Robert (March 29, 2012). "Bloggers Cherry-Pick From Social Media to Cast Trayvon Martin as a Menace". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  32. ^ Shieber, Jonathan (October 2, 2017). "How reports from 4chan on the Las Vegas shooting showed up on Google Top Stories". Techcrunch. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  33. ^ Daro, Ishmael N. (June 3, 2016). "Don't Believe Any Breaking News That Names This Comedian As A Mass Shooter". BuzzFeed. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  34. ^ Bell, Chris (October 2, 2017). "Las Vegas: The fake photos shared after tragedies". BBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  35. ^ Selk, Avi (April 2, 2017). "A live stream of Shia LaBeouf chanting was disrupted by Nazi-themed dancing. Then things got weird". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  36. ^ Ross, Janell (November 3, 2017). "'It's okay to be white' signs and stickers appear on campuses and streets across the country". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  37. ^ "Government Orders 8 Sites Blocked For Hosting Christchurch Footage". Kotaku Australia. 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  38. ^ Gabriel Emile Hine; Onaolapo, Jeremiah; Emiliano De Cristofaro; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Samaras, Riginos; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2016). "Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web". arXiv:1610.03452 [cs.SI].
  39. ^ Gabriel Emile Hine; Onaolapo, Jeremiah; Emiliano De Cristofaro; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Samaras, Riginos; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2016). "A Longitudinal Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and its Effect on the Web". arXiv:1610.03452v3 [cs.SI].
  40. ^ "New UK report exposes massive online network of far-right antisemitism". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 25 August 2020.

Overview

Much of the content on /pol/ relies heavily on memes to further spread ideas.[1] One of the most popular memes found on the board during the period surrounding the 2016 US presidential election was that of Pepe the Frog, which has been deemed a white supremacist symbol by some media outlets due to it being shown in uniforms, places, and people associated with Nazism, the Ku Klux Klan, and antisemitism.[2][3][4] Many have questioned the sincerity of users on /pol/ as possible trolls.[5][6]

History

/pol/'s predecessor, created in 2010, was removed a year later, because, according to 4chan's creator and ex-administrator Christopher Poole, it became "[S]tormfront,"[8] referring to the oldest and largest Holocaust-denialist white supremacist site,[9] due to its high volume of highly offensive discussion.[7] According to Christine Lagorio-Chafkin, /pol/ was created by "4chan's founder […] to siphon off and contain the overtly xenophobic and racist comments and memes from other wings of 4chan."[10] This has led to /pol/ acquiring the nickname of a "containment board", because its purpose is to keep far-right and generally political content off of 4chan's other boards.[11][12][13]

Reception and influence

/pol/ has been characterized as predominantly racist and sexist, with many of its posts taking explicitly alt-right and neo-Nazi points of view. In particular, the board is infamous for the prevalence of antisemitic threads and memes.[14][15][16][17][18][19] The Southern Poverty Law Center regards /pol/'s rhetorical style as widely emulated by white supremacist websites such as The Daily Stormer; the Stormer's editor, Andrew Anglin, concurred.[15] Many /pol/ users favored Donald Trump during his 2016 United States presidential campaign.[19] Upon his election, a /pol/ moderator embedded a pro-Trump video at the top of all of the board's pages.[20][21][22][23]

As a potential honeypot

Many have speculated whether the website is kept online as a honeypot for far right groups or to monitor extremists. In 2015, an Australian Department of Defence graduate used /pol/ to share classified information, only to be caught by another former Department of Defence worker browsing the site.[24] Within /pol/ suspected agents of various intelligence communities are called "Glowniggers",[25] a reference to the schizophrenic computer programmer Terry A. Davis who said "The CIA Niggers glow in the dark, you can see them if you're driving, you just run them over, that's what you do."[26] Because of this, suspicious posts are deemed to be "glowing" and "glowposting" is a common phrase on the forum.[27][additional citation(s) needed]

Notable events

/pol/ was where screenshots of Trayvon Martin's hacked social media accounts were initially posted.[28][29]

After the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, a Google search for a "registered democrat" named Geary Danley showed a /pol/ thread in the top stories section falsely identifying him as the shooter. A spokesperson for Google said that the thread appeared because search queries and news about the man were rare allowing for the thread to appear in the top stories section of the man's name but the thread did not appear in broader searches about the Las Vegas shooting.[30]

A popular meme that originated on /pol/ claims comedian Sam Hyde is the perpetrator of a mass shooting event or terrorist attack, in hopes of trolling a mainstream news outlet to report Hyde as the attacker.[31] The first instance of this hoax was the Umpqua Community College shooting. According to BBC News, CNN mistakenly included Hyde's image on their coverage of the shooting.[32]

Users of /pol/ engaged in coordinated attacks on LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner's HEWILLNOTDIVIDE.US, a performance art project made to protest Donald Trump's presidency.[33] Users also organised the It's OK to be white poster campaign.[34]

Users of the site devised a prank to make the OK hand sign appear to be a white supremacist symbol; this was done to "troll" the media into thinking it was, and thus cause the reporting of fake news. The sign resembles the letters WP, which users said stands for white power.[citation needed]

In 2019, /pol/ was temporarily blocked by Australian internet service providers for containing videos of the Christchurch mosque shootings.[35]

Statistics

According to a 2017 longitudinal study, using a dataset of over 8M posts, /pol/ is a diverse ecosystem with users well-distributed around the world. The percentage of posts containing hate speech ranges from 4.15% (e.g., in Indonesia, Arab countries) to 30% (e.g., China, Bahamas, Cyprus). Elevated use of hate speech is seen in Western European countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and France).[36][37]

According to Community Security Trust, many threads contain "explicit calls for Jews to be killed".[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hathaway, Jay (June 7, 2017). "What the Harvard teens don't get about memes". The Daily Dot. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  2. ^ "Pepe the Frog". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  3. ^ Roy, Jessica (October 11, 2016). "How 'Pepe the Frog' went from harmless to hate symbol". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  4. ^ Ellyatt, Holly (September 29, 2016). "Who is Pepe the Frog and why has he become a hate symbol?". CNBC. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  5. ^ Tait, Amelia (February 16, 2017). "First they came for Pepe: How "ironic" Nazism is taking over the internet". New Statesman. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  6. ^ Wilson, Jason (May 23, 2017). "Hiding in plain sight: how the 'alt-right' is weaponizing irony to spread fascism". The Guardian. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  7. ^ a b moot (January 19, 2011). "Why were /r9k/ and /new/ removed?". 4chan. Retrieved August 16, 2019 – via WebCite.
  8. ^ Beran, Dale (Jul 30, 2019). It Came from Something Awful: How a Toxic Troll Army Accidentally Memed Donald Trump into Office. St. Martin's Publishing Group. ISBN 9781250219473
  9. ^ "Stormfront". Hate on Display™ Hate Symbols Database. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  10. ^ Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (2018). "r/The_Donald". We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory. Hachette Books. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-316-43536-9.
  11. ^ ""Dennis Erasmus" — Containment Breach: 4chan's /pol/ and the Failed Logic of "Safe Spaces" for Far-Right Ideology". July 1, 2019.
  12. ^ Saeger, Eric W. (August 24, 2018). Russian Nazi Troll Bots!: The Busy Person's Guide to How Trump's Trolls Won the Internet, What's Ahead, and What You Can Do. Metro Clarion Media. ISBN 9781732583511 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ https://aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM17/paper/download/15670/14790
  14. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (September 25, 2014). "Absolutely everything you need to know to understand 4chan, the Internet's own bogeyman". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  15. ^ a b Siegel, Jacob (June 29, 2015). "Dylann Roof, 4chan, and the New Online Racism". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  16. ^ Alonso, Fernando III (June 13, 2014). "#EndFathersDay is the work of 4chan, not feminists". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  17. ^ Schwartz, Or (December 7, 2014). "4chan Trolls Take Over Electronic Billboard, Racism Ensues". Vocativ. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  18. ^ "Alt-Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  19. ^ a b Hine, Gabriel Emile; Onaolapo, Jeremiah; De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Samaras, Riginos; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2017). Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web (PDF). Proceedings of the 11th International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. p. 9. arXiv:1610.03452. Bibcode:2016arXiv161003452E. This paper presented the first large-scale study of /pol/, 4chan's politically incorrect board, arguably the most controversial one owing to its links to the alt-right movement and its unconventional support to Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign.
  20. ^ Lee, Oliver (March 13, 2016). "Understanding Trump's Troll Army". Motherboard. Vice Media. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  21. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (November 9, 2016). "'We actually elected a meme as president': How 4chan celebrated Trump's victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  22. ^ Steinblatt, Jacob (October 13, 2015). "Donald Trump Embraces His 4Chan Fans". Vocativ. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  23. ^ Schreckinger, Ben (March–April 2017). "World War Meme". Politico. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  24. ^ Fri, Aug 7th 2015 8:31am-Tim Cushing. "Man Leaks Sensitive Documents To 4chan; Receives Insults, Arrest For His Troubles". Techdirt. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  25. ^ "Richmond Gun Rally: Is A Virginia Cop Giving 4Chan's /pol Board Inside Info?". bellingcat. 2020-01-19. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  26. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  27. ^ Salo, Jackie; Moore, Tina (2019-08-13). "Why was Jeffrey Epstein's death on 4chan before it became public?". New York Post. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  28. ^ Bankoff, Caroline (March 29, 2012). "White Supremacist Claims to Have Hacked Trayvon Martin's Email, Social Media Accounts". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  29. ^ Mackey, Robert (March 29, 2012). "Bloggers Cherry-Pick From Social Media to Cast Trayvon Martin as a Menace". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  30. ^ Shieber, Jonathan (October 2, 2017). "How reports from 4chan on the Las Vegas shooting showed up on Google Top Stories". Techcrunch. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  31. ^ Daro, Ishmael N. (June 3, 2016). "Don't Believe Any Breaking News That Names This Comedian As A Mass Shooter". BuzzFeed. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  32. ^ Bell, Chris (October 2, 2017). "Las Vegas: The fake photos shared after tragedies". BBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  33. ^ Selk, Avi (April 2, 2017). "A live stream of Shia LaBeouf chanting was disrupted by Nazi-themed dancing. Then things got weird". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  34. ^ Ross, Janell (November 3, 2017). "'It's okay to be white' signs and stickers appear on campuses and streets across the country". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  35. ^ "Government Orders 8 Sites Blocked For Hosting Christchurch Footage". Kotaku Australia. 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  36. ^ Gabriel Emile Hine; Onaolapo, Jeremiah; Emiliano De Cristofaro; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Samaras, Riginos; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2016). "Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web". arXiv:1610.03452 [cs.SI].
  37. ^ Gabriel Emile Hine; Onaolapo, Jeremiah; Emiliano De Cristofaro; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Leontiadis, Ilias; Samaras, Riginos; Stringhini, Gianluca; Blackburn, Jeremy (2016). "A Longitudinal Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and its Effect on the Web". arXiv:1610.03452v3 [cs.SI].
  38. ^ "New UK report exposes massive online network of far-right antisemitism". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 25 August 2020.

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