For mair airticles adae wi fowk, steids an things in Scotland tak a keek at category:Scotland.

Alba   (Scots Gaelic)
Motto:  "In My Defens God Me Defend"  (Scots)
"In my defence God me defend" a
Anthem Various b
Predominantly " Flouer o Scotland"
Location o  Scotland  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the Unitit Kinrick  (green)
Location o  Scotland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the Unitit Kinrick  (green)

Status Kintra
Caipital Edinburgh
Lairgest ceety Glesga
55°51′N 4°16′W / 55.850°N 4.267°W / 55.850; -4.267
Leids Inglis
leids c
Ethnic groups
  • 96.0% White
  • 2.7% Asie
  • 0.7% Black
  • 0.4% Mixed
  • 0.2% Arab
  • 0.1% other[5]
  • 53.8% Christian
  • 2.6% Ither
  • 46.6% No releegion/nae statit[6][7]
Demonym(s) Scots
Govrenment Devolved parliamentary legislature within constitutional
•  Monarch
Pairlament o the Unitit Kinrick
•  Secretar o State
David Mundell
•  Hoose o Commons
59 MPs (o 650)
Legislatur Scots Pairlament
•  Established
9t yearhunder (tradeetionally 843)
1 Mey 1707
•  Devolution
19 November 1998
• Land
77,933 km2 (30,090 sq mi)[8]
• 2019 estimate
Increase 5,463,300[9]
• 2011 census
• Density
67.5/km2 (174.8/sq mi)
HDI (2017) 0.901[11]
verra heich
Currency Poond sterling (GBP)
Time zone UTC (GMT)
• Summer ( DST)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drivin side caur
Cawin code +44
ISO 3166 code GB-SCT
  1. Eften shawn abbreviatit as "In Defens".
  2. See Naitional anthem o Scotland.
  3. Baith Scots an Scots Gaelic are offeecially recognised as regional leids unner the European Chairter for Regional or Minority Leids.[12] Unner the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked wi securin Gaelic as an offeecial leid o Scotland.[13] Breetish Sign Leid is offeecially recognised unner the British Sign Language (Scotland) Act 2015.[14]
  4. The heid o state o the Unitit Kinrick is the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II, syne 1952). Scotland haes leemitit sel-govrenment within the UK as well as representation in the UK Pairlament. It is an aa a UK electoral region for the European Pairlament. Certain executive an legislative pouers hae been devolved tae, respectively, the Scots Govrenment an the Scots Pairlament.

Scotland (Scots Gaelic: Alba) is a kintra in nor-wast Europe, an is ane o the fower kintras[15] that maks the Unitit Kinrick. It taks up the northren thrid o the Breetish island. Scotland haes til its sooth the laund o Ingland, an is bund bi the German Ocean til the eist an the Atlantic Ocean til the north an wast.

It aforetyms wis a free kinrik, but than Scotland gaed intil a union wi Ingland in 1603, whan Jeams VI o Scotland becam Jeams I o Ingland eftir the daith o Elspeth I. This union wis makkit formal on 1 Mey 1707 bi the Treatie o Union. The Scots Pairlament wis gotten rid o on 26 Mairch. The union southert baith kinriks, makkin the Kinrick o Great Breetain, wi a new singil Pairlament haudden in Wastmeinster, Lunnon, but sum pairts o Scotland's institutions, merkit the laund's naitional kirk an skuilin an legal seistems, wis hauden apairt. In 1801, Scotland becam ane o the thrie launds o the Unitit Kinrick, alang wi Ingland an Ireland (nou juist Northren Ireland). Wales is nou seen for uisal as anither laund, awtho it wis juist a principalitie o the kinrik o Ingland in 1707.

In 1997, the Scots fowk voted ti hae a new pairlament, estaiblisht bi the UK govrenment in the Scotland Act 1998. The nou devolv'd Scots Pairlament haes been gien the pouer ti govren the laund on maist Scots maiters, but haesna ower mukkil pouer wi taxes, awtho it dis hae the pouer ti chynge the UK incum tax rate bi 3p in the poond.

Scotland's size is maistlie that estaiblisht bi the 1237 Treatie o York atwein Scotland an Ingland an the 1266 Treatie o Perth atwein Scotland an Norawa. Exceptions is the Isle o Mann, that is nou a croun dependencie ootwi the Unitit Kinrick, Orkney an Shetland, that is nou Scots raither nor Dens, an Barwick, that wis defined as subjek til the laws o Ingland bi the 1746 Wales an Barwick Act.

The patron saunt o Scotland is Saunt Andra, an St. Andra's Day is on 30 November but it haesna been mukkil celebratit syn the Reformation.

The wird Scot wis taen frae the Laitin an its uiss micht weil date fae aboot the first hauf o the 10t yeirhunder, whan it first kyth'd in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle an harkent til the Laund o the Gaels, analogous til the Laitin Scotia. The ither name is "Caledonia", whilk is gien ti sum pairts o the New Warld an colonies, lyk New Caledonia. Scots keengs adoptit the teetil Basileus/Rex Scottorum (= Heich Keeng/Keeng o the Gaels, basileus meinin sovrein in the Greek, an rex meinin keeng in the Laitin) an Rex Scotiae (Keeng o Gael-Land) sum tym in the 11t yeirhunder, lyklie swee'd bi the styl Imperator Scottorum kent ti hae been uis'd bi Brian Bóruma in Ireland in 1005. In modren tyms the wird "Scot" is uis'd equalie for aw indwallers nae maiter wha thair forebeirs wis. This is acause the kintra his haed a ceivic raither nor a singil kin orientation for maist o the last thoosan yeir.

The foonders o Scotland o late mediaeval legend, Scota wi Goídel Glas, on thair vaige frae Egyp, as shawn in a 15t yeirhunder manuskript o the Scotichronicon o Walter Bower.
Main airticle: History o Scotland

Aerlie historie

Main airticle: Prehistoric Scotland

Repeat'd glaciations, that kiver'd the hail laund-mass o modren Scotland, hae malafouster'd onie traces that thar micht hae been o bodies bidin thon afore the Mesolithic period. It is thocht that the first post-glacial groups o hunter-gaitherers winned til Scotland aboot 12,800 yeir aby, as the ice sheet retreat'd eftir the last glaciation.[16][17] Groups o sattilers begoud biggin the first kent lestie hooses on Scots yird aboot 9,500 yeir aby, an the first clachans aboot 6,000 yeir aby. The weil-haint clachan o Skara Brae on the Mainlaund o Orkney dates frae this tym. Neolithic dwallin, birrial an ritual steids ar gey common an weil-haint in the Northren Isles an Wastren Isles, whaur want o trees led ti maist biggins bein biggit oot o local stane.[18]

Reman influinse

Skara Brae, a neolithic dounset, liggin at the Bay o Skaill, Orkney.
A replica o the Pechtish Hilton o Cadboll Stane.

The written protohistorie o Scotland begoud wi the incumin o the Roman Empire in soothren an central Gret Breetain, whan the Romans occupee'd whit is nou Ingland an Wales, admeinisterin it as a province cried Britannia. Roman invasions an occupations o soothren Scotland war a series o breif interludes. In 83–4 AD the General Gnaeus Julius Agricola baet the Caledonians at the battil o Mons Graupius, an Roman forts war breiflie set alang the Gask Rig naur til the Hieland lyn (nane ar kent ti hae been biggit ayont that). Thrie yeir eftir the battil the Roman airmies haed resiled til the Soothren Uplands.[19] Thay pit up Hadrian's waw for ti haud in the tribes on baith syds o the waw,[20] an the Limes Britannicus becam the northren laundmairch o the empire, awtho the airmie hauden on til the Antonine Waw in the Middil Lawlands for twa short periods—the hindmaist o thaim wis durin the tym o Emperor Septimius Severus frae 208 till 210.[21] The amoont o Roman militar occupation o onie significant pairt o Scotland wis boond til a tot o aboot 40 yeir, awtho thair swee on the soothren bit o the kintra occupee'd bi Brythonic tribes sic as the Votadini an Damnonii wad still hae been conseiderabil.[20]

Middil Ages

Main airticles: Pechts, Scotland in the Heich Middil Ages, and Scotland in the Late Middil Ages

It the vera beginnin o the early medieval time thare wur nae Angles nor anly Saxons nor een ony Vikings juist yet. In the land the Romans caad Caledonia thare wur mainly juist the Pechts an mibbe a wee bit frae the north pairts o Hibernia as the Romans haed caad it. Thare's monitor whit uist tae think the Irish cam ainer in muckle numers. Bit naw. In reality archaeological evidence maks it clear that an elite cam ower. This wis verra lik the situation win the Saxons wha cam intae the East o Britannia an some o whom cam up tae Caledonia in the Lothian. Thare few indeed. We're as well tae think in terms o jist a few thousan it maist. As elites tho sicweys influence wis great on the local population. Sae the Pictish tongue retreats frae Argyle as weel as frae the sooth o the Lothian.

Modren historie

David Morier's pentin on the " Battle o Culloden".

In 1603, Jeams VI Keeng o Scots inherit'd the throne o the Kinrick o Ingland, an becam Keeng Jeams I o Ingland, an left Edinburgh for Lunnon.[22] Apairt frae a short tyd unner the Protectorate, Scotland stey'd a sinder state, but thar wis guid pukil fechtin atwein the croun an the Covenanters ower the furm o kirk govrenment. Eftir the Glorious Revolution, the aboleition o episkopacie an the dingin doun o the Roman Catholic Jeams VII bi Weelum an Mairie, Scotland breiflie shored ti wale a different Protestant monarch frae Ingland.[23] In 1707, the Scots Pairlament an the Pairlament o Ingland enakit the twin Acts o Union that led ti Scotland's formal incorporation intil the Kinrick o Great Breetain.[24] The deponed Jacobite Stuart claimants haed stey'd popular in the Hielands an nor'eist, in parteicular amangst non-Presbyterians. Houaniver, twa mukkil Jacobite uprisins lench'd in 1715 an 1745 failt ti remuive the Hoose o Hanover frae the Breetish throne. The threit o the Jacobite muivement til the Unitit Kinrick an its monarchs effekivlie endit at the Battil o Culloden, Great Breetain's last pitchit battil. The baetin o the Jacobite's at thon battil paved the wey for lairge-skale remuivals o the indwallers o the Hielands an Islands, kent as the Hieland Clearances.[24]

The Scots Enlightenment an the Industrial Revolution makkit Scotland intil an intellectual, commercial an industrial pouerhouss. Eftir Seicont Warld Weir, Scotland tholed an industrial dwynin that wis parteicular dour.[25] Anerlie in raicent decades haes the kintra enjoy'd sumthing o a cultural an economic renaissance. Economic factors that hae contribute til this rekiverie include a resurgent financial services industrie, electronics manufacturin (see Silicon Glen),[26] an the German Ocean ayl an gas industrie.[27]

Follaein a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998[28] wis passt bi the Unitit Kinrick Pairlament for til estaiblish a devolv'd Scots Pairlament.

In 2011, The Scottis Naitional Pairtie wun an oweraw majority in pairlament an intends tae haud a referendum oan unthirldom in the hairst o 2014.

Scotland haes mair nor 790 ilands, whilk ar sindert intil fower groups: Shetland, Orkney, an the Hebrides, whilk ar sub-dividit intil the Inner Hebrides an Ooter Hebrides, the ail o Mull isnae ti be forgotten.

  1. "St Andrew—Quick Facts". Scotland. org—The Official Online Gateway. Archived frae the oreeginal on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. "St Andrew". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  3. "St Margaret of Scotland". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
    "Patron saints". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  4. "St Columba". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  5. "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011" (PDF). The Scottish Government. 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  6. "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census". The Scottish Government. 17 May 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 6 June 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. "Scotland's Census 2011 – Table KS209SCb" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  8. Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  9. Jonathan, McMullan (28 June 2018). "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". (in Inglis). Office for National Statistics.
  10. "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012". National Records of Scotland. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  11. "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". (in Inglis). Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  12. "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Cooncil o Europe (in Inglis). Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  13. Macleod, Angus "Gaelic given official status" (22 April 2005) The Times. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  14. "Scotland becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as official language". Herald Scotland. 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  15. Scotland, England, Wales an Northern Ireland
  16. The aerliest kent evidence is a keezil-stane arraeheid frae Islay. See Moffat, Alistair (2005). Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 42.
  17. Sites at Cramond dated til 8500 BC an naur Kinloch, Rùm frae 7700 BC provide the aerliest kent evidence o bodies bidin in Scotland. See "The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map: Rubbish dump reveals time-capsule of Scotland's earliest settlements". Retrieved 2008-02-10. and Edwards, Kevin J. and Whittington, Graeme "Vegetation Change" in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003). Scotland After the Ice Age: Environment, Archaeology and History, 8000 BC–AD 1000. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 70.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors leet (link)
  18. Pryor, Francis (2003). Britain BC. London: HarperPerennial. pp. 98–104 & 246–250. ISBN 978-0007126934.
  19. Hanson, William S. The Roman Presence: Brief Interludes, in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003). Scotland After the Ice Age: Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC - AD 1000. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors leet (link)
  20. 20.0 20.1 Snyder, Christopher A. (2003). The Britons. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22260-X.
  21. Robertson, Anne S. (1960). The Antonine Wall. Glasgow Archaeological Society.
  22. Ross, David (2002). Chronology of Scottish History. Geddes & Grosset. p. 56. ISBN 1-85534-380-0. 1603: Jeams VI becomes Jeams I o Ingland in the Union o the Crouns, an quats Edinburgh for Lunnon
  23. TM Devine (1999) op cit "…Stated that the Scots Parliament had the right to decide on Queen Anne's successor, and that England and Scotland could not have the same sovereign in the future unless the London Parliament granted Scots 'Free Communication of trade'…"
  24. 24.0 24.1 Mackie, J.D. (1969). A History of Scotland. London: Penguin.
  25. Harvie, Christopher (1981). No Gods and Precious Few Heroes: Scotland 1914–80. London: Edward Arnold.
  26. See Stewart, Heather. "Celtic Tiger Burns Brighter at Holyrood". The Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 2007-05-06. for an accoont o Scotland's economic challenges, especialie eftir the dotcom dounturn, as it competes wi the emergin Eastren European economies.
  27. "National Planning Framework for Scotland". Scottish Government publication. Retrieved 2007-11-07. Since the 1970s, the development of North Sea oil and gas fields has made an important contribution to the Scottish economy, and underpinned prosperity in the North-East.
  28. "The Scotland Act 1998". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 2008-04-22.

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